Arkansas State Personnel Development Grant

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Positive Behavioral Support System Tools and Resources

The ultimate goal of a Positive Behavioral Support System (PBSS) is to facilitate all students’ social, emotional, and behavioral competency and self-management. In order to accomplish this, the Closing the Achievement Gap (CTAG) initiative uses Project ACHIEVE’s evidence-based PBSS blueprint (see for more information). This blueprint includes these six components: (a) Social Skills Instruction for all students; (b) building-wide Accountability processes; (c) staff and administrative Consistency; (d) a “Special Situations” process focusing on student behavior in the common areas of a school and as related to student teasing, taunting, bullying, harassment, and physical aggression; (e) school-based Crisis Intervention and Response Strategies; and (f) Community and Parent Outreach activities.

In order to help districts and schools in the diverse areas of PBSS, more information in the following areas are available on the Project ACHIEVE website ( or through the links below:


Technical Assistance Papers on Implementing Project ACHIEVE’s Evidence-based School-wide Positive Behavioral Support System (PBSS)

Implementing Project ACHIEVE at the School and District Levels: Positive Behavioral Support System (PBSS) Implementation Fact Sheet

Project ACHIEVE is an innovative school reform and school effectiveness program that has been implemented in schools and school districts across the country since 1990. Project ACHIEVE’s ultimate goal is to help design and implement effective school and schooling processes to maximize the academic and social/emotional/behavioral progress and achievement of all students. Project ACHIEVE has also helped schools to implement effective and efficient problem-solving and strategic intervention processes for students with academic and behavioral difficulties, while improving the staff’s professional development and effective instruction interactions, and increasing the quality of parent (and community) involvement and engagement.

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Technical Assistance Papers Reviewing Eight Evidence-based Social Skills Programs, and the Research Base of the Stop & Think Social Skills Program

School-wide Discipline, Behavior Management, and Student Self-Management: Focusing on Social Skills Instruction and Selecting an Evidence-based Social Skills Program

Research has consistently demonstrated that children’s social, emotional, and behavioral skills and status affect their interpersonal status, academic engagement, and academic success at school. This speaks to the importance of social skills training for all students in the schools—a primary setting where they can learn, practice, and master some of the interpersonal, social problem solving, conflict prevention resolution, and emotional coping skills and strategies that also are critical to their physical and mental health and wellness. While there are hundreds of social skill programs marketed to educators and schools, less than ten of these social skills programs are either evidence-based or well-researched.

The first Technical Assistance paper discusses the evidence-based components of Positive Behavioral Support Systems, including the characteristics of effective social skills programs. It then describes how to teach social skills in the classroom, and reviews eight notable research-based social skills programs. The TA paper concludes with recommendations on ways for districts to select a social skills program for use across all of its schools.

SPDG Positive Behavioral Support System Briefing Paper 1009

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Behavioral Observation Protocols:

Observing Classroom Climate, Safety, and Student Discipline using Brief Classroom Walk-Throughs

Observing Student Behavior using Systematic Behavioral Observation

I. Evaluating Classroom Climate, Safety, and Classroom Management using Brief Classroom Walk-Throughs

II. Completing Systematic Behavioral Observations of Students in the Classroom

Collecting systematic behavioral observation data is essential to understanding what is actually happening in the classroom relative to both students and teachers. Data from behavioral observations of teachers provide a real-time look at their effective instruction and classroom management interactions, and those that need improvement. Data from behavioral observations of students helps to track such variables as time on-task, the frequency of inappropriate behavior, how long they are able to maintain good attention, and how long it takes before they begin their work.

The Effective Classroom Management Walk-Through (CWT) protocol was developed for principals or others who want to determine the degree of positive, effective, and proactive classroom management approaches in classrooms across their school. Based on educational and behavioral research, the Effective Classroom Management CWT protocol involves 23 items organized in three areas: the Evidence of Teacher’s Effective Classroom Management area, the Students’ Positive Behavioral Interactions and Respect area, and the Classroom Safety and Security area. The first behavioral observation document provides this CWT protocol and describes how to use it.

Classroom Walk Through Behavioral Observation Scale and Explanation 111

The second behavioral observation document provides a protocol that can be used to observe the classroom engagement of individual students and groups of students, and it describes how to use it.

Classroom Walk Through Behavioral Observation Protocol 808

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Model "Response-to-Intervention/Closing the Achievement Gap" School and District Implementation Guidebook Available. Accompanied by an "Implementation Q and A Resource"
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