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K-5 WRITING #7

Mini-lesson: Writing A Rough Draft

Grades 2-5

 

 

WRITING

 

Common Core State Standards

• W.2.3 Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure.
• W.3.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear even sequences.
a. Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
b. Use dialogue and descriptions of actions, thoughts, and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situation.
c. Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order.
d. Provide a sense of closure.
• W.3.4 With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose.
• W.3.10 Write routinely over extended time frames and shorter time frames for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
• W.4.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
a. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
b. Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
c. Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events.
d. Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
e. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.
• W.4.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
• W.4.10 Write routinely over extended time frames and shorter time frames for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
• W.5.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
a. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
• W.5.4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
• W.5.10 Write routinely over extended time frames and shorter time frames for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

 

 

 

Rationale

Often students think that the first message they write should be the finished product. In learning the writing process, the rough draft stage is where students need to learn to get ideas down on paper and not be focused on the appearance of the writing.

 

 

Materials

  • Chart paper rough draft story or transparency of the rough draft of the story

 

 

Direct Explanation

In the drafting stage, we focus on getting down on paper everything we know about a topic. This is called a “rough draft” because the emphasis is on your ideas, rather than spelling, punctuation and mechanics. Later in revision and editing we will polish up our writing and make sure it is reader-friendly.”

 

 

Model

Yesterday, I told you my story of a time when I got stuck in a tree as a little girl. Last night I wrote a rough draft of my story of getting stuck in a tree. This is what it looks like. (Show the rough draft on a chart or transparency.) Listen to the story as I read it to you. Check to see if it sounds like the story I told you yesterday.

 

When I was a little girl, I liked to climb trees. One day I climbed a tree on the empty lot down the street. When I was ready to come down, my foot was stuck in the fork of two branches. I tried to get it out, but it was stuck. I called for help, but no one heard me. Then Mr. Martin came home from work. When he stepped out of his car, I yelled. He brought over his ladder and climbed up to me. By gently rocking my foot back and forth, he set it free.

Does that sound like the story I told you yesterday? During drafting the writer focuses on getting the story on paper. Did you notice that I use a pen and not a pencil? I want the story to get out of my head and onto the paper as fast as I can. When I made mistakes, I just crossed them out and kept on writing.”

 

 

Guided Practice

Students will write ‘draft’ at the top of their paper and begin writing a rough draft of the story they told yesterday in small groups. They will use a black or blue pen to write with and will cross out mistakes and keep writing, as needed. During the sharing, they should read their draft aloud to the same group to check if the written version is similar to the oral story.

 

 

Independent Practice

Students will independently write a rough draft of their message before attempting to revise or edit and publish. It should be written in ink and not expected to be a finished piece until it has been revised and edited and then published.

 

 

Assessment

When the teacher checks the writer’s notebooks, copies of rough drafts should be visible. Not all rough drafts have to be taken through the writing process for some will be abandoned. However, there should be ample evidence that the students know how to generate a rough draft on a topic.

 

 

Tier II Additions

  • Have students independently write a rough draft of their message before attempting to revise or edit and publish using a story element chart. It should be written in ink and not expected to be a finished piece until it has been revised and edited and then published.

 

 

Assessment

When the teacher checks the writer’s notebooks, copies of rough drafts and story element chart should be visible. Not all rough drafts have to be taken through the writing process for some will be abandoned. However, there should be ample evidence that the students know how to generate a rough draft on a topic.

 

 

Tier III Accommodations/Modifications

  • Have students independently write a rough draft of their message before attempting to revise or edit and publish using concrete story element chart (who, what, when, where, why, and/or how). It should be written in ink and not expected to be a finished piece until it has been revised and edited and then published. Before revising and editing, student will be asked to correct any sequence errors.

 

 

Assessment

When the teacher checks the writer’s notebooks, copies of rough drafts and story element charts (who, what, when, where, why, and/or how) should be visible. Not all rough drafts have to be taken through the writing process for some will be abandoned. However, there should be ample evidence that the students know how to generate a rough draft on a topic and to answer the element chart questions

 

 

Tier IV Modifications

  • The teacher/paraprofessional/peer will assist the student in copying the modified version of the teacher’s story on paper/ computer or augmentative device, e.g., Alpha Talker. “ I liked to climb trees. One day I climbed a tree. My foot was stuck in the fork of two branches. I called for help. Mr. Martin brought over his ladder and climbed up to me. He got my foot unstuck.”

 

 

Assessment

Students will identify words and/or sentences order that tell a story via the student’s communication system.

 

 

Tier V Modifications

  • The teacher/paraprofessional/peer will assist the student in identifying words in the modified story according the story element chart (who, what, when, where, why, and/or how).

  • Use objects, pictures, and verbal (aural/signs) to assist the student in selecting (using low/high assistive technology as needed) words, phrases, and/or sentences (as appropriate to the student).

 

 

 

Assessment

Students will identify words and/or sentences order that tell a story via the student’s communication system.

 

Resources

Fletcher, Ralph and Portalupi Joann (1998). Craft Lessons: Teaching Writing

K-8. York, ME: Stenhouse.

 

Tompkins, Gail E. (2000). Teaching Writing: Balancing Process and Product.

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

 

Copyright © 2006 Arkansas Department of Education. All rights reserved. School districts may reproduce these materials for in-school student use only. No resale. Materials may not be reproduced, distributed or sold for commercial use or profit. ADE employees are not authorized to waive these restrictions.

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