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K-5 VOCABULARY #1

Explicit Vocabulary With Read Aloud

Grades 2-4

 

 

VOCABULARY

 

Common Core State Standards

• L.2.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.
a. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
• L.2.6 Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe.
• L.3.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning word and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
a. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
• L.3.6 Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships.
• L.4.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
a. Use context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
• L.4.6 Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being and that are basic to a particular topic.
• L.5.4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
a. Use context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
• L.5.6 Acquire and use accurately grade appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships.

 

 

 

Rationale:

(After Read Aloud) Children acquire vocabulary both directly, through explicit instruction, and indirectly, through wide reading and listening. This explicit lesson would take place at the end of a Read Aloud and discussion of the story. The words chosen are words of high utility and will be found across many different types of texts. (See Bringing Words To Life for instruction on choosing words)

 

 

Materials:

  • The Tale Of Despereaux by Kate DeCamillo (2nd grade and higher interest level)

  • Index cards

  • Photocopy of the cover of the book

 

 

Direct Explanation:There are two words from the chapter we just read that you need to understand the meaning of. You will be seeing these words in many other books and stories that you will read and will hear these words used by adults in conversation. You may want to begin using these words in your writing. These words are ‘ordeal’ and ‘tragedy’.”

 

 

Model:

  1. Contextualize the word: “On page 11 the author writes, “Where are my babies?” said the exhausted mother when the ordeal was through.”

 

  1. Say the word: “Say the word with me…ORDEAL.”

 

  1. Student-friendly definition: “An ordeal is a very painful or trying experience. For instance, an ordeal might be to have to wait and wait and wait for someone to pick you up from school. Or it might be you have to get stitches in a deep cut on your arm.

 

Guided Practice:

  1. Student interaction with word: “Think of something that might be an ordeal for you. When I call on you, say, “An ordeal for me would be…”

 

  1. Call on two or three students and have them give their examples. “Now turn to the person next to you and share your examples of what an ordeal would be for you.”

 

  1. Say the word: “What is the word we’re learning? ORDEAL”

 

Repeat sequence for second word, “tragedy”.

 

Model:

  1. Contextualize the word: “On page 12, the mother mouse says, “Will I name him? Will I name him? Of course I will name him, but he will only die like the others. Oh, so sad. Oh, such the tragedy!”

 

2. Say the word: “Let’s say this word together…TRAGEDY.”

 

3. Student-friendly definition: “A tragedy is something that happens that is

terrible and very sad. For instance, it is a tragedy when someone dies in a

car accident. It feels like a tragedy when your very best friend moves

away to another place and you never see him again. When there is an

earthquake and houses and people have no place to live, it is a tragedy.”

 

Guided Practice:

  1. Student Interaction with the word: “Think of something that might be a

tragedy. When I call on you, say, “A tragedy might be __________”. Call

on two or three students for their examples. “Now turn to the person next

to you and tell what a tragedy might be.”

 

  1. Say the word: “What’s the word? TRAGEDY”

 

  1. Use all the words in one sentence: “ Rescuing the survivors from the train wreck tragedy was a terrible ordeal.”

Tier I Application/Assessment:

  • Analyze students’ writings for use of new vocabulary words

  • Teacher-made vocabulary test (matching, fill-in-the blank, use in a sentence, etc.)

 

Words have to be used repeatedly to be firmly in memory. One way to help students with this is to have a place in the room where you keep these words on the wall. Photocopy the cover of the book and place the words on index cards next to the book cover. As other books are read, their covers and vocabulary words are also posted. Refer to these words as you talk about other stories and content areas. When words are clearly posted, you will refer to them more often.

 

Encourage students to use these words in their writing by putting their names on sticky notes and placing them on or near the word cards when you’ve noticed that they’ve used them in their writing.

 

Another idea is to have a Word Wizard poster (see Bringing Words To Life) where children’s names are listed and the words they find in other texts, that are the same as the vocabulary words, can be written on sticky notes and placed beside the child’s name on the poster.

 

 

Tier II Additions/Accommodations:

  • Close proximity to teacher and make eye contact

  • Student copies the word onto a word card for the class or for placing on his/her own desk

  • Restate the student-friendly definition in a different way

  • Pair-share with a partner, then share with the large group

  • Post words on a vocabulary word wall with the book cover as a visual cue, allowing the student to post the word

  • Visualize by describing the scene from the story before talking again about the definition (“Picture in your mind the mother mouse being so tired that she was lying on her bed like this…” and act out)

  • Quickly review word meaning and restate student examples

  • Allow student additional response time after asking a question

  • Provide specific praise for the student’s participation, i.e., “Right, chuckle does mean to laugh.”

  • Always repeat word and definition before asking student question

  • Provide additional thinking or processing time for student, i.e., “Marcus, think about an ‘ordeal’ you’ve had and I’ll come back to you for your answer.”

  • Keep the student focused through questioning during the whole group session

 

 

 

 

Tier II Application/Assessment:

  • Change input and/or output format for vocabulary test, i.e., oral response

  • Modified test format, i.e., multiple choice, fewer response choices in matching

 

 

Tier III Modifications:

  • Allow student to give answers through different modalities, i.e., oral, sorting

  • Pair-share with a partner, then share with the small group

  • After listening to other students’ examples and given two choices of examples, allow student to choose the one that fits the meaning of the word

  • Review or re-teach words with a partner or small group after the lesson

  • Using vocabulary word cards, check for comprehension of words by having student connect meanings to own personal experiences

  • Ask student to form a visual image of vocabulary word meanings as part of discussion, small group or one-on-one

  • Role-play word meanings in a small group or with a partner, i.e., demonstrate canter, chuckle

  • Pre-teach vocabulary in a small group

  • Draw a picture of the word meaning in a vocabulary journal

 

Tier III Assessment:

Given two choices, allow student to choose correct response demonstrating comprehension of vocabulary word, i.e. “Opening my Christmas present was an ordeal. It was an ordeal when my mother went to the hospital.”

 

 

Tier IV Modifications:

  • Use any previously listed accommodation and/or modification needed by the student

  • In a small group setting pre-teach the meaning of target words

  • Abstract words may take more practice, pre-teaching and more examples than the more concrete words

  • Allow student to use all senses to learn a word, for example, some words are best learned by using motor movements (walk versus gallop), some through smell (aroma versus odor) and some through touch (cool versus icy)

  • With the aid of a peer, paraprofessional, parent volunteer or teacher, have student build a vocabulary notebook that may include pictures, icons, drawings and/or objects to help him/her remember the word

  • Teach a context for the word

 

Tier IV Assessment:

Given two choices, allow student to choose correct response demonstrating comprehension of vocabulary word, i.e., “The cookies had a wonderful aroma. The garbage had a wonderful aroma.”

Tier V Modifications:

  • Use any previously listed accommodation and/or modification needed by the student

  • In a small group or 1:1 setting pre-teach the meaning of target words

  • Abstract vocabulary may need experiential learning for the student to understand the meaning of the target word

  • Allow student to use all senses to learn a word, for example, some words are best learned by using motor movements (walk versus gallop), some through smell (aroma versus odor) and some through touch (cool versus icy)

  • Start with a few words at a time

  • With the aid of a peer, paraprofessional, parent volunteer or teacher have student build a vocabulary notebook that may include pictures, icons, drawings and/or objects to help him/her remember the word

  • Teach a context for the word

 

Tier V Assessments:

  • Allow student to match word with meaning of the word

  • Allow student to dictate a short paragraph with 2 to 4 sentences using target word(s)

 

Explicit Vocabulary #1 With Read Aloud

References:

Beck, McKeown, and Kucan (2002) Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction, The Guilford Press

 

Put Reading First, U. S. Department of Education

 

Copyright © 2006 Arkansas Department of Education. All rights reserved. School districts may reproduce these materials for in-school student use only. No resale. Materials may not be reproduced, distributed or sold for Commercial use or profit. ADE employees are not authorized to waive these restrictions.

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