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K-4 PHONICS - SPELLING

Word Maker with Initial Consonants,

Digraphs, and Blends

 

 

Common Core State Standards

• RF.K.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
              a. Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary sound or many of the                       frequent sounds for each consonant.
              b. Associate the long and short sounds with common spellings for the five major vowels.
              c. Read common high-frequency words by sight.
              d. Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ.
• RF.1.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
              a. Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs.
              b. Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.
              c. Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds.
• RF.2.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
              a. Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words.
              b. Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams.
• RF.3.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
• RF.4.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
• RF.5.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

 

 

Rationale

Scientifically based research tells us that systematic and explicit phonics instruction is more effective than non-systematic or no phonics instruction at all. When given practice with letter-sound relationships in a predetermined sequence, children learn to use these relationships to decode words that contain them (NRP, 2000).

 

We know that sound-letter correspondences are important components in beginning reading instruction; rather than teach them in isolation, it is best to coordinate them to reinforce and extend student learning. Daily, integrated lessons that include explicit introductions to letter-sound relationships and opportunities to blend sounds, build and practice spelling words, and read words

and decodable texts will enhance the beginning reading experience (Blevins, 1998).

 

After students study beginning consonants, they are ready to learn about initial consonant digraphs and blends. The goal of studying consonant digraphs and blends is to not only master letter-sound correspondences but also to help students see these two-letter combinations as single units in CVC patterns.

 

The following is a common sequence for introducing letter-sound correspondences:

  1. Initial consonants (m,n,t,s,p)

  2. Short vowel and consonant combinations (-at,-in,-ot)

  3. Blends (bl,dr,st )

  4. Digraphs (th, sh, ph)

  5. Long Vowels (eat, oat)

  6. Final e (-ake, -ute, -ime)

  7. Variant vowels and dipthongs (-oi, -ou)

  8. Silent letters and inflectional endings (kn,wr,-es,-s)

(Blevins,1998)

 

The number of letter-sound correspondences introduced each week will vary based on the students, but two per week should be adequate for most.

HINT: Select letter-sound relationships that will allow students to form words.

 

Materials

  • Word cards that have onsets on half (single consonants, blends, and digraphs) and common short-vowel rimes on the other. See sample word cards at the end of this lesson.

Sample blends

  •  
    • l – blends: bl, cl, fl, gl, pl, sl

    • r – blends: br, cr, dr, fr, gr, pr, tr

    • s – blends: sn, sm, st, sk

Sample digraphs

  • sh

  • th

Sample rimes

  • A Families- at, ad, ag, an, ank, amp

  • E Families- et,ed,eg,eck,end,ent

  • I Families- it, ig, ill, ick, ing, im

  • O Families- ot, ob, og, op, ong, oss

  • U Families- ut, ub, um, un, ump, ung

 

Direct Explanation

You are going to be making new words using blends and dipraphs. Blends are when two or more consonants join together as in b + l = bl, and digraphs are when two letters join to make one distinct sound c + h = ch. By learning new words, you will learn to read and write words better. You are now going to match blends and digraphs with word families to make new words.”

 

Model

Hold up a word card with a blend or digraph on it. Then hold up two cards in your other hand with a different rime on each one and create one word by choosing one of the rime cards. Sound out the new word (ex. “sh” “op”) for the students.

 

Guided Practice

  1. Each student begins by drawing 3-5 (the number of cards is up to you) cards from the deck. With the cards face up, each student tries to create words by matching onset and rime cards.

  2. Once the students have made one or two words from their first set of cards they begin taking turns drawing cards from the deck. Every time they make a word they can draw one or two more cards (again, you decide how many). If they cannot make a word they draw one card.

  3. Play continues until all the letter cards are used up. The player with the most words is the winner.

 

 

 

Independent Practice

Students can work independently with the word maker cards to generate and record as many words as possible.

 

Assessment

Students will record their findings and new words on paper. The teacher may also observe the word building and record evidence with anecdotal records. Note whether or not students are using their knowledge of onset/rime substitution in their reading and writing.

 

Tier II Additions

  • Help the student formulate word banks using rimes.

  • Allow students more time to formulate words.

 

Tier II Assessment

Allow students to use their word banks to assist with making new words and to use alternative methods to create new words.

 

Tier III Accommodations/Modifications

  • Help student build the word bank.

  • Color code the blends & digraphs one color (ex. blue) and the rimes another color (ex. green).

 

Tier III Assessment

Given a word bank with blends/digraphs and rimes, student will find the new words spoken by teacher.

 

Tier IV Modifications

  • Teach only one blend and one digraph with limited rimes.

  • Allow more practice time in a small group with peer tutor and/or paraprofessional.

 

Tier IV Assessment

Given a word bank with blends/digraphs and rimes, student will find the new

words spoken by teacher.

 

Tier V Modifications

  • Use any previously listed accommodation and/or modification needed by the student.

  • Have student work in small group or in a 1:1 setting with a peer tutor or paraprofessional prior to working with whole class.

  • Allow extra practice time, but shorter sessions.

 

 

Tier V Assessment

Given a word bank with blends/digraphs and rimes, student will indicate the new words spoken by teacher by head nod, eye gaze, etc.

 

 

 

 

References

 

Bear, Invernizzi, Templeton, Johnston (2004). Words their way. Columbus, Ohio: PEARSON, Merrill Prentice Hall.

 

Vaughn, Linan-Thompson (2004). Research-Based Methods of Reading Instruction, Grades K-3. Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

 

Ganske, (2000). Word Journeys. New York, New York: The Guilford Press

 

Download: Word Maker With Initial Consonants, Digraphs, And Blends - doc file

Copyright © 2006 Arkansas Department of Education. All rights reserved. School districts may reproduce these materials for in-school student use only. No resale. Materials may not be reproduced, distributed or sold for commercial use or profit. ADE employees are not authorized to waive these restrictions.

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