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K-5 Phonics - Spelling # 3

Onset and Rime

Grades K-2

Common Core State Standards

RF.K.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words
           a. Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one letter-sound correspondences by
               producing the primary sound or many of the frequent sounds for each
               consonant.
           b. Associate the long and short sounds with common spellings for the five major
               vowels.
           d. Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the
               letters that differ.

RF.1.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
           a. Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs.
           b. Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.

RF.2.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
           a. Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable
               words.
           b. Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams.

Rationale

Children need to understand and use, fluently, onset and rime. In doing so, they can easily decode and understand how words can have the same rime with a different onset that will create new words.

 

Materials

  • Index cards

  • Magnetic letters

  • Paper (i.e. journal, notebook, loose paper)

  • Pencil

Direct Explanation

We are getting very good at making new words out of ones we already know. There are many word chunks that we see in words. When we know those chunks, it helps us to read words we might not have seen befor, because we see a part of the word that we know. Let’s learn a new word chunk today and see how we can make different words from it.”

 

Model

  1. Each week introduce a new rime (at, it, ut, et, ot, ay, ing). The grade level and developmental level of the learner should determine the difficulty of the rime.

  2. Model how to write the rime on the card.

  3. Use magnetic letters on the overhead projector to show students how adding different onsets to a rime will make new words, i.e., sit, fit, lit, kit, hot, pot, lot, dot.

Guided Practice

  1. Students build words, at their seats, as the teacher models on the overhead using rime cards and magnetic letters.

  2. As students create new words with the card and magnetic letters, model on the board or overhead how to record new words. Students record their words in their journal or on paper.

Independent Practice

  1. Each student may keep rime cards on a ring at their desk or placed in Literacy Corners for independent practice. These cards may be stored in a Ziploc bag (for easy access) with magnetic letters for the onsets.

  2. Independent practice by the students can be done during seat practice, in a Literacy Corner,or with a buddy.

  3. As the year progresses and students have more and more rime cards, they will be able to build numerous words and record for writing practice.

 

Assessment

Students will record their findings and new words on paper. The teacher may also observe the word building and record evidence with anecdotal records. Note whether or not students are using their knowledge of onset/rime substitution in their reading and writing

 

Tier II Additions

  • Use a “See, Write, Say” strategy to maximize input from multiple senses.

  • Help the student formulate word banks using rimes.

  • Allow students to use alternative method to write the words given by teacher.

 

Tier II Assessment

Allow students to use their word banks to assist with making new words and

to use alternative methods to create new words.

 

Tier III Accommodations/Modifications

  • Help student build the word bank.

  • Color code the rimes (at rime would be blue, it would be green).

 

Tier III Assessment

Given a word bank student will find the new words spoken by teacher. (Word bank – cat, bat, fat, hat – student circles the word ‘fat’). Also, given a word bank student will match the word to its picture (picture of a fat cat and a skinny cat – child is to identify ‘fat’).

 

Tier IV Modifications

  • Help student build a word bank.

  • Color code the rimes (at would be blue, it would be green, etc.).

  • Teach only two word families with limited consonant onsets.

  • Allow more practice time in a small group.

 

Tier IV Assessment

Given a word bank student will find the new words spoken by teacher (word bank – cat, bat, fat, hat – student circles the word ‘fat’). Also, given a word bank student will match the word to its picture (picture of a fat cat and a skinny cat – child is to identify ‘fat’).

 

Tier V Modifications

  • Use any previously listed accommodation and/or modification needed by the student.

  • Teach one rime at a time using limited consonants and color code the rimes.

  • Add other rimes after first one is learned.

  • Have student work in small group or in a 1:1 setting prior to working with whole class.

  • Allow extra practice time, but shorter sessions.

 

Tier V Assessment

Allow student to use word bank and have him/her match rimes without color

coding – i.e., student is given words cat, led, and mat and he is to pick out cat and mat.

 

Resources

Apprenticeship In Literacy, Dorn, French, and Jones (1998)

Word Journeys, Ganske (2000)

 

 

Copyright © 2006 Arkansas Department of Education. All rights reserved. School districts may reproduce these materials for in-school student use only. No resale. Materials may not be reproduced, distributed or sold for commercial use or profit. ADE employees are not authorized to waive these restrictions.

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