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K-5 Phonics/Spelling #1 

Hearing and Matching Sounds and Letters In Words


Grades K-1


Common Core State Standards

RF.K.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding
          words
          b. Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one letter-sound correspondences
              by producing the primary sound or many of the frequent sounds for each
              consonant.
          c. Associate the long and short sounds with common spellings for the five
              major vowels.

RF.1.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding
          words.
          b. Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words!!!


Rationale

Very early in the word study program children must learn the alphabetic principle. These are simple lessons to help children learn

  • that letters and sounds relate

  • specific letter-sound relationships

  • the sequence of the sounds in words relates to the sequence of the letters in the word.

 

Materials

  • Teacher: Overhead and magnetic letters

  • Students: Up to five magnetic letters



Direct Explanation

Today you are going to learn how to listen to the sounds in a word and then build that word with letters. This is how words work. We will use magnetic letters and our very good ears.”



Model

  1. Place five magnetic letters on the overhead. The letters should include the ones needed to make the words you will model. Say the name of each letter as you pull it down, then when you have said the name of all letters, push them up and say their sounds. Example: Say,a, m, t, h, b while pulling letters down and /a/ /m/ /t/ /h/ /b/ while pushing letters up.” This is to establish fluency with letter recognition and sounds before spelling the words.

  2. Make a one-syllable word with magnetic letters on the overhead. Choose a word that has a direct letter sound match such as at, me, if, in, big, hat. Work with two letters words first, then move to three letter words.

  3. Run your finger under the word while saying it slowly. Then say, “I am going to say the word slowly and pull down the letters that match what I am saying.” Model for children.

  4. Next, say, “I can say a word slowly and find the letters to spell the word.” Place the letters to spell a simple word such as cap plus two extra letters at the top of the overhead. Mix them up. Model saying the word slowly while finding the matching letters.

  5. Summarize the modeling by saying, “When I see a word I don’t know, I can look at the letters and think about the sounds they make. When I need to write a word, I can listen while I say it slowly and think about the letters that make the sounds I hear.”

 

Guided Practice

  1. Place five letters on the overhead, the ones needed to spell the two or three one-syllable words. Pull the letters and say their names; push them up and say their sounds. Have students do this with you. At first, the children will place their letters in the same order as teachers; when they are firmer in letter names and sounds, they should mix up the letters.

  2. Make a one-syllable word with magnetic letters on the overhead. Choose a word that has direct letter sound match such as at, me, if, in, big, hat. Work with two letters words first, then move to three letter words

  3. Run your finger under the word while saying it slowly. Say, I am going to say the word slowly and pull down the letters that match what I am saying. You do the same thing with your letters. Have children repeat the process at their desks.

  4. Once children become proficient at saying words slowly and pulling down the corresponding letters in two letter words, move to three letter words.

Independent Practice

Write words on word cards. In pairs, have one student say the word slowly and the other student pull down the letters, independently, in a Literacy Corner during independent practice time.

Assessment

Teacher will observe students performing these tasks with magnetic letters. The application will come as the teacher prompts the students to say the sounds and write the letters.

Tier II Additions

  • Allow student to assist during modeling activity by giving overhead letters to teacher upon request.

  • Provide Braille magnetic letters for students with visual impairments during guided and independent practice.

  • Provide seating close to teacher and signal students with hearing impairments to focus on teacher’s lips during modeling activity. Remind student of the letter sound mouth shapes during the modeling.

  • Pair a visual student with a student who is visually impaired during guided activity.

  • Allow student to wear headphones to muffle sounds of other students or room noises during independent activity.

  • Allow student to stand during guided and independent activities.

  • Practice in a small group before this activity.

  • Use Magnetic letters that have the vowels as different colors.

  • Use letters with pictures to represent the sound.

  • Pair with a more proficient reader and use the Echo Reading technique for sounding and building words.

  • Color code lines at the bottom of magnetic letters so that student does not mix up similar letters, i.e., b & d, p & q

  • Provide picture mnemonics for each letter making sure that the same picture is used consistently with the same letter in every activity.

  • Use words in the activity that begin with continuous sounds such as /s/, /m/, and /f/ that are easier to pronounce than stop sounds such as /p/, /b/, and /k/.

  • Provide immediate reinforcement for correct work.

  • Include self-correction sheets with activities when possible to provide immediate feedback and encourage self-monitoring.

  • Assist students in building three letter words by providing a picture of a train with boxes underneath to hold the letters. The engine represents the initial sound, the boxcar represents the medial sound, and the caboose is the final sound.

 

Tier II Assessments

During teacher observation, allow student to direct peer to physically manipulate magnetic letters if student has motor problems that interfere with this activity.

Also, provide Braille magnetic letters for students with visual impairments.

Tier III Accommodations/Modifications

  • Allow student to direct peer to physically manipulate magnetic letters if student has motor problems that interfere with this activity.

  • Ask speech pathologist to pre-teach letter sound mouth shapes of words that will be used in modeling activity to students with hearing impairments.

  • Have the words written on cards and allow student to put letters on top of letters on cards during independent activities.

  • Provide a guide that consists of letters and a corresponding picture for each letter to assist students working in the guided and independent activities.

  • Allow another student to assist a student who is in the early stages of developing phoneme awareness by pulling down the medial and final position letters. An alternative would be to provide a card with the word written (except for the missing letter) so the student’s task is to pull down the initial position letter only. After automaticity is reached with the initial position, student should master the final letter position before working with the medial position letter.

  • Pre-teach in a small group those students that are struggling substantially with sound associations teaching only the first five consonants (t, m, k, f, p) and one short vowel (a as in apple). Use magnetic letters to create a variety of word family combinations using these five consonants and the selected short vowel (i.e., pat, fat, mat) that the student can decode.

 

Tier III Assessments

Allow the student to select between fewer consonant sounds. Also, allow the student to select between consonants with the fewest features in common (/t/ and /m/ or /l/ and /m/).

 

Tier IV Modifications

  • Use any of the previously listed accommodations and/or modifications needed by the student.

  • Break the task into smaller units

  • Provide extra practice time for students

  • Pre-teach in a small group or 1:1. Teach only the first four consonants (t, m, f, p) and one short vowel (a as in apple). Use magnetic letters to create a variety of word family combinations using these five consonants and the selected short vowel (i.e., pat, fat, mat) that the student can decode.

 

Tier IV Assessments

Allow the student to select between fewer consonant sounds. Also, select between consonants with the fewest features in common (/t/ and /m/).

 

Tier V Modifications

  • Use any of the previously listed accommodations and/or modifications needed by the student.

  • Pre-teach in a small group or 1:1. Teach only the first three consonants (t, m, p) and one short vowel (a as in apple). Use magnetic letters to create a variety of word family combinations using these five consonants and the selected short vowel (i.e., pat & mat) that the student can decode.

  • Break into short sessions with frequent practice.

 

Tier V Assessments

Allow the student to select between two consonant sounds.

 

Resources

Dorn and French. Apprenticeship In Literacy.

 

Chard, D. J. and Dickson, S. V. (1999). Phonological Awareness: Instructional and Assessment Guidelines. LDonLine. http://www.ldonline.olrg/ld_indepth/reading/chard_phono_awareness.htm. Retrieved 5/6/2005.

 

Frost, J. A. and Emery, M. J. (1995). Academic interventions for children with dyslexia who have phonological core deficits. LDOnLine. http://www.Idonline.org/ld_indepth/teachers/eric_digest539.html. Retrieved 5/6/2005.

 

Edelen-Smith, P. J. How now brown cow: phoneme awareness activities for collaborative classrooms. LDOnLine. http://www.ldonline.org/ld_indepth/teaching_techniques/cld_hownow.html

Retrieved 5/6/2005.

 

Richards, R. G. Writing made easier. LDOnLine. http://www.ldonline.org/article.php?id=924&loc=27. Retrieved 3/25/2005.

 

Copyright © 2006 Arkansas Department of Education. All rights reserved. School districts may reproduce these materials for in-school student use only. No resale. Materials may not be reproduced, distributed or sold for commercial use or profit. ADE employees are not authorized to waive these restrictions.

 

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