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K-5 Phonemic Awareness #3

Phonemic Awareness: Segmenting Short Vowel Words 

Grades K-1

 

Common Core State Standards


RF.K.2 Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
           d. Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes)
               in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant, or CVC words.

RF.1.2 Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
           c. Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes)
               in spoken single-syllable words.
           d. Segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of
               individual sounds (phonemes).

Rationale

Segmenting words by phoneme is one of the skills critical to reading. Visually representing the segmentation with counters supports phonemic awareness.

 

Materials

  • Teacher: overhead projector, 3 counters, OH marker

  • Children: wipe off boards, dry erase markers, 3 counters

 

Direct Explanation

“We are going to segment words into their sounds and show how many sounds are in a word by using the counters. This can help you when you need to write a word that you don’t know how to spell.”

 

Model

I will segment the word cat. Listen as I say each sound /c/ /a/ /t/. (Raise one finger as you say each sound.) You try it. How many sounds do you hear? (Have child raise one finger for each sound.) Yes, we hear three sounds so I will draw three lines. Now let’s say cat and I will move one counter for each sound. I want you to segment the word cat and I will push the counters as you say the sounds. Let’s try it /c/ /a/ /t/.”

 

Push the disks to match the children’s segmenting. After the word is segmented and visually represented with the counters, run your finger under the counters and put the word back together – cat.

 

Guided Practice

Now you say the word and try it with your counters.”

 

Have the children segment the word ‘big’. As they segment the word, have the children count the number of sounds they hear. On the overhead, draw a line for each sound (___ ____ ___ ). Have children draw three lines on their dry erase boards. Model pushing a counter for each sound as you say the word. Have children push a counter for each sound, then run their fingers under the counters and say the whole word.

 

Have children practice segmenting several other CVC words. (sad, man, pet, kid). Show pictures of some words and have children say them and segment to prepare them for independent practice in the Literacy Corner.

 

Independent Practice

Place pictures of CVC words into a Literacy Corner. Have children practice segmenting words by matching sounds and counters as modeled and practiced in the lesson.

 

Note: This lesson may be taken to the letter/sound connection level after phonemic awareness is established by substituting letters for the counters.

 

Assessment

Say a list of one-syllable words and ask the child to segment them. Allow them to use counters if needed. The DIBELS Phoneme Segmentation Measure may be used for progress monitoring of phoneme segmentation fluency.

 

Tier II Additions/Accommodations

  • Offer student more practice opportunities.

  • Allow a peer buddy or adult to manipulate the colored blocks if student has motor difficulties, while student gives oral information.

  • Allow student to clap out or tap out the sounds as teacher says or visually displays the phonemes.

 

Tier II Assessment

Allowed appropriate accommodations, students will say a list of one-syllable words and ask the child to segment them. Allow them to use colored blocks if needed. The DIBELS Phoneme Segmentation Measure may be used for progress monitoring of phoneme segmentation fluency.

 

Tier III Modification

  • Give the word (such as ‘big’) with each letter on a separate card, and have student tell how many segments (phonemes) make up the word and then blend the phonemes into a word.

  • Say the word with emphasis and student will count the sounds they hear and tell how many.

 

Tier III Assessment

Given a printed word, student will listen to someone say the word and tell how many sounds are in the word. Then student will listen to same word, without visual and tell how many sounds are in the word. Student may use colored blocks if needed. When given a choice of two, student will listen to a word and choose the correct word. For example, shown the words hit and cop, student will select the correct word when the word “hit” is spoken.

 

Tier IV Modifications

  • Check to ensure the student discriminates and produces the short vowels sounds.

  • Use any previously listed accommodations and/or modifications needed by the student.

  • Practice in small groups or 1:1 with a teacher, parent volunteer or paraprofessional.

  • Increase number of practice sessions, however, length of sessions may need to be shortened.

 

Assessment

Given a printed word, student will listen to someone say the word and tell how many sounds are in the word. Then student will listen to same word, without visual, and tell how many sounds are in the word. Student may use colored blocks if needed. When given a choice of two, student will listen to a word and choose the correct word. For example, shown the words hit and cop, student will select the correct word when the word “hit” is spoken.

 

Tier V Modifications

  • Check to ensure the student discriminates and produces the short vowel sounds.

  • Check to ensure student understands the concept of numbers up to three.

  • Use any previously listed accommodations and/or modifications needed by the student.

  • Practice in small groups or 1:1 with a teacher, parent volunteer or paraprofessional.

  • Begin with words and picture of word combined, then picture with letters to spell the word, then just written word.

  • Increase number of practice sessions; however, length of sessions may need to be shortened.

  • Use words with as much contrast as possible. For example, sok and bam would be a better contrast than bat and men.

 

Assessment

Student will be assessed with a rubric that allows for a continuum from 1) needs visual support and highly contrasting words, 2) visual support (pictures and written word) and less contrasting words to 3) selecting the correct written word when word is spoken.

 

 

References

Good, R.H., Kaminski, R.A., and Smith, S. (2002) Phoneme Segmentation Fluency. In R.H. Good and R.A. Kaminski (Eds.), Dynamic Indicators of Early Literacy Skills (6th ed.) Eugene: Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement.

 

Beeler, T. (2002) Phonetic Connections: Start Up To Build Up. Pelham, NY: Benchmark Publishing

 

Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) Phoneme Segmentation.

 

Copyright © 2006 Arkansas Department of Education. All rights reserved. School districts may reproduce these materials for in-school student use only. No resale. Materials may not be reproduced, distributed or sold for commercial use or profit. ADE employees are not authorized to waive these restrictions.

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