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K-5 Phonemic Awareness #2
Phonological Awareness: Segmenting Onset and Rime
Grades K-1

 

Common Core State Standard

RF.K.2 Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
           c. Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words.

 

Rationale

Segment words into onset and rime by demonstrating, kinesthetically. This is a broader phonological skill that underlies the development of phonemic awareness.

 

Materials

  • One-syllable picture cards

  • Pop beads or Unifix cubes

 

Direct Explanation

“We are going to segment a word into two parts by saying just the first part of the word and then saying the rest of the word. Three of you will be one word, with one of you being the first part of the word (onset) and the others being the end part of the word (rime).Then we will blend the onset and rime back together into the word.”

 

Model

Ask two children to help you model. You will be the onset of a word and the children will be the rime. Break apart the word bat. Link your arm with the children. Tell the children that you will be the onset, /b/ and they will be the rime, /at/. Say the first part of the word and then the second part of the word -- /b//at/. When your arms are linked, you say /bat/ together. When you drop your arms, you each say your part /b/ … /at/. Show them how to do this and say the word bat and then the word parts /b/ . .. /at/. Then put the onset and rime back together /bat/. Do one or two other words.

 

Show how to represent the onset and rime with pop beads or Unifix cubes, breaking the word apart like they did with their bodies in the arm link – one cube representing onset, two cubes representing rime.

 

Guided Practice

Pick another one syllable word and have two children demonstrate segmenting it into onset and rime. Have one child be the onset and the others the rime. Have the class practice breaking the word apart as you touch each of the children demonstrating. Start with words with only two or three phonemes. Allow children to pair up and do the arm link while they break the words.

 

To prepare children for independent practice, do the procedure by showing picture cards and having them say the words and break them apart into onset/rime, representing the onset/rime with beads or cubes.

 

 

 

Independent Practice

Place one-syllable picture cards into the Literacy Corner so children can practice breaking into onset and rime.

 

Assessment

Say a word to the child. Have them segment it orally into onset and rime. Say an onset and rime; have the child blend them into a word. Allow them to use the beads or cubes as a manipulative if they need to do so.

 

Tier II Additions

  • Provide student with pictures with corresponding words where the rhyming endings are highlighted (i.e., cat, bat).

  • Provide peer or adult assistance for students with fine motor or physical disabilities in manipulating picture cards and beads.

  • Provide picture cards in appropriate media for students with visual impairments (i.e., enlarged picture, appropriate lighting, physical models).

  • Use American Sign Language (teacher and/or interpreter) during modeling and guided practice for student with hearing impairment.

  • Provide student with pictures with corresponding words where the rhyming endings are highlighted, i.e. cat, bat.

  • Provide peer or adult assistance for students with fine motor or physical disabilities in manipulating picture cards.

  • Provide picture cards in appropriate media for students with visual impairments (example: enlarged picture, appropriate lighting, physical models).

  • Use American Sign Language (teacher or interpreter) during modeling and guided practice for student with hearing impairment.

 

Tier II Assessment

When given appropriate accommodations, student will listen to a word, and then will segment it into onset and rime. When given an onset and rime, student will blend it into a word. Allow student to use beads or cubes, if needed.

 

 

Tier III Accommodations/Modifications

  • Provide a picture schedule that describes the steps of the lesson.

  • Reduce number of pictures during independent practice.

  • Allow student who is nonverbal to respond with gestures or assistive technology to questions about onset and rime.

  • Pre-teach in small group or one-on-one the concept of onset and rime words.

 

Tier III Assessment

Student will be given a set of four consonants and a word family, such as /at/. Then the student will select the correct onset when given a spoken word. For example, teacher would give student the consonants of b, c, f and h; along with a card that had /at/ printed on it. Teacher would say, “fat” and student would need to choose the correct consonant. When shown the same consonants and word family, student will blend the onset and rime into a word.

 

Tier IV Modifications

  • Use any previously mentioned accommodation needed by the student.

  • Begin in small group or 1:1 setting.

  • Use fewer initial consonants.

  • Increase amount of practice session; however, each session may need to be shorter in length.

 

Assessment

Student will be given a set of three consonants and a word family, such as /at/. Then the student will select the correct onset when given a spoken word. For example, teacher would give student the consonants of b, c, and f; along with a card that had /at/ printed on it. Teacher would say, “fat” and student would need to choose the correct consonant. When shown the same consonants and word family, student will blend the onset and rime into a word.

 

Tier V Modifications

  • Use any previously mentioned accommodation or modification needed by the student.

  • Limit the number of consonants to two, once the student is successful with two then add another. Use consonants with as few features in common as possible (the more features in common, the more difficult to discriminate between the consonants, example /f/ and /v/. The only difference is one is voiced and one is unvoiced.)

  • Increase the number of practice sessions; however, sessions may need to be short in length, based on the student’s ability to attend to task.

 

Assessment

Student will be given two consonants and a word family, such as /at/. Then the student will select the correct onset when given a spoken word. For example, teacher would give student the consonants of b and c along with a card that had /at/ printed on it. Teacher would say, “cat” and student would need to choose the correct consonant. When shown the same consonants and word family, student will blend the onset and rime into a word.

 

 

 

References

Phonetic Connections: Start Up To Build Up, (2002) Terri Beeler, Benchmark Publishing

 

 

Copyright © 2006 Arkansas Department of Education. All rights reserved. School districts may reproduce these materials for in-school student use only. No resale. Materials may not be reproduced, distributed or sold for commercial use or profit. ADE employees are not authorized to waive these restrictions.

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