Arkansas State Personnel Development Grant

1401 W. Capital Ave.
Suite #450
Little Rock, AR 72201
Phone: (501) 319-7333
Fax: (501) 379-8387

K-5 Fluency #3

Shared Reading


Grades K-1



Common Core State Standards

• RF.K.4 Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding.
• RL.K.10 Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.
• RF.1.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
a. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
b. Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expressive readings.
c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
• RL.1.10 With prompting and support, read prose and poetry of appropriate complexity for grade 1.



Fluency provides the bridge between word recognition and comprehension. Because fluent readers do not have to concentrate on decoding words, they can concentrate on what the text means (Put Reading First, 2001.) “ Shared Reading is an apprenticeship: the teacher reads with the children and the children actively contribute to the reading with the teacher’s guidance.” (Dorn, 1998)

Shared reading is a form of supported reading that allows the readers to focus on fluency and comprehension.



  • Poems

  • Big Books with print large enough for all readers to see and with repetitive phrases – Example—Mrs. Wishy-Washy



  1. Reread a familiar poem or story as a warm-up

  2. Introduce a new poem or story

  3. Read with expression and fluency

  4. Discuss the story

  5. Reread for fluency


Direct Explanation

After rereading a familiar poem or story as a warm-up, introduce the new poem or story. Ask students to listen to how your voice changes with different parts of the story and listen for when your voice pauses.


Example: Mrs. Wishy-Washy

We will read “The Scrubbing Machine”, a poem we know. Then we will read a new book, Mrs. Wishy-Washy, a story about Mrs. Wishy-Washy and her farm animals. This is Mrs. Wishy-Washy on the front. On the back are things she will use in the story. What do you think she will be doing? (Picture of scrub brush and soap – washing things.) Listen to find out what Mrs. Wishy-Washy does as I read. Listen to hear how my voice helps you understand the story.”



Read the familiar poem with the children. Model fluent reading of the new text. Make sure everyone can see the text and follow the reading. If you choose to use a pointer to help children keep up, move it fluidly so that fluency is not impeded. (This is different from using the pointer crisply in beginning shared reading lessons to establish one-to-one correspondence.)


Read with expression and share your joy for reading. You may stop for a prediction or a think-aloud to build meaning, but let the joy of reading, modeling fluency and the understanding of the story be the focus of this reading.


Discuss the text to build meaning. Focus on only one or two teaching points, i.e., comprehension, vocabulary or fluency.


Example: Mrs. Wishy-Washy

Read the poem “The Scrubbing Machine” together. Read it expressively with proper phrasing as children join in.

Read the new text
Mrs. Wishy-Washy. Be very expressive. Children may begin to join in as you read the repeated texts, “Oh, lovely mud,” or “In went the pig, wishy-washy, wishy-washy.” Stop for one or two predictions, for example, after page 7, ask, “What do you think Mrs. Wishy-Washy is going to do?”


After reading, have a brief discussion confirm comprehension of the story. For example, ask, “What did Mrs. Wishy –Washy do when she saw the animals?


Guided Practice

Read the text again and invite the children to join in with you in a choral reading procedure. Read a small portion of the text aloud, stopping at points appropriate for rereading. Practice repeated phrases and have all children join in.


Example: Mrs. Wishy-Washy

Read pages 4-5, then repeat and ask children to read with you, “Oh, lovely mud,” said the pig, and he rolled in it.” Repeat, “Oh, lovely mud,” encouraging children to say it like the pig would say it.


Provide explicit instruction in the features of prosody (expression, stress or emphasis, pitch variation, intonations, and pausing) phrasing and rate. Instruct children to lower and raise their voices as they read and to attend to punctuation marks to guide them in when and how long to pause and what kind of intonation to use.


Example: Mrs. Wishy-Washy

On page 9, there is an exclamation point at the end. How would Mrs. Wishy-Washy sound when she was talking? “Just look at you!” she screamed.”


Provide explicit instruction in print features that indicate emphasis on a word or phrase. For example, words in bold print are read loudly.


Example: Mrs. Wishy-Washy

On page 9, the word look is in bold letters. Why? How would Mrs. Wishy-Washy say that?”


There is power in rereading. Read the book again several times after the initial reading. Each time you reread the book, focus on one or two new teaching points. If the children (or you) are ready to put the book away after a week, remember that you can pull it out later to make new teaching points.


Independent Practice

Children should have the opportunity to read the book several times.

Place the big book in a literacy center for children to practice rereading.



Look for transfer of prosody, phrasing and rate into guided and independent reading.


Tier II Additions

  • Have student listen to story on tape to reinforce emphasis on voice tones and inflections.

  • Provide reading materials in appropriate media (example: Braille, big books).

  • Provide colored overlays for maximizing background contrast to assist students with visual perception problems.

  • Color code or highlight points of emphasis with the student.

  • Pair a visual student with a student who is visually impaired.

  • Have visual consultant read with student who is visually impaired during Shared Reading.

  • Modify the format of print on the page.

  • Pair with student who models good intonation and pausing during choral reading.

  • Signal students visually to redirect attention.

  • Use role playing.

  • Have Interpreter sign text during Shared Reading and student use American Sign Language (ASL) to sign choral response.

  • Let student serve as teacher assistant and use pointer with text as teacher reads.

  • Ask student who is non-verbal to indicate yes or no (either verbally or with assistive technology) if text is read with correct intonation and pausing.

  • Observe to see if student with hearing impairment uses strong signing for emphasis and pausing in appropriate situations during signing of text to indicate transfer of use of intonation and pausing.



  • Work with speech pathologist to identify “fear sounds/words” for students that stutter and take into consideration how this will affect fluency rate.

  • Provide reading materials in appropriate media (example: Braille, large print).

  • Allow use of Page Fluffers (foam sheets between pages) to enable students with fine motor or physical disabilities to turn pages easily.

  • Assess with modified rubric to determine which prosodic features a student is using.


Tier III Accommodations/Modifications

  • Allow student to use fingers or pointer under text as they read in small group or with an adult.

  • Provide cut-out window frame that allows student to see one line or phrase at a time as they read in small group or with an adult.

  • Reduce amount of graphics in the reading material for students who are visually distracted as they read in small group or with an adult.

  • Scan shared reading into reading software (such as Kursweil).

  • Allow student to read the story on tape after Shared Reading.

  • Preteach or reteach choral text using sentence strips.

  • Assess student’s use of intonation by having students choose phrases from a list that should be read with strong feeling.

  • Assess student’s use of pausing by asking them to read aloud a ‘teacher selected’ paragraph or selection.



Assess with modified rubric to determine which prosodic features a student is using.


Tier IV Modifications

  • Use any previously mentioned modifications needed by the student.

  • Use video recorder to allow student to use motions, signs or other method to “read” while the other students read.

  • Have the student show a picture of the emotion or feeling as others read.



Assess with modified rubric to determine which prosodic features a student is using and/or understands.


Tier V Modifications

  • Use any previous modification that is needed by the student.

  • Utilize paraprofessional, parent volunteer, or teacher to help student understand the features of prosody.

  • Allow student to use augmentative/alternative communication system to “read with other students.

  • Have student show a picture/icon of the feeling as others read.



Assess with modified rubric to determine which prosodic features a student is using and/or understands.



Dorn, 1998, Apprenticeship in Literacy

Put Reading First, 2001

Mrs. Wishy-Washy . Wright Group


Copyright © 2006 Arkansas Department of Education. All rights reserved. School districts may reproduce these materials for in-school student use only. No resale. Materials may not be reproduced, distributed or sold for commercial use or profit. ADE employees are not authorized to waive these restrictions.

No Events To Display...
Privacy Statement | Site Map | Staff Login | Web site design and hosting by Web International
© Copyright 2010 Arkansas State Personnel Development Grant • All Rights Reserved
how to buy viagra in uk over the counter viagra for sale cheap uk