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K-4 Fluency #1

Sample Procedure for Familiar Reading Fluency Practice 

Grades K-1


 

FLUENCY

 

Framework

R.10.K.1, R.10.1.1

Read daily

R.10.K.9 Read a variety of simple repetitive texts, including poetry and nursery rhymes

R.10.K.13 Read familiar poems and nursery rhymes to explore rhythm and rhyme

R.11.K.14, R.11.1.10

Read grade level texts with accuracy of 90% or above

R.11.K.15 Demonstrate automaticity of letter names and sounds

R.11.1.11 Demonstrate automaticity of letter sounds and phonic patterns during reading

R.11.K.16 Self-monitor using cues to make sense of the reading

R.11.K.17 Demonstrate automaticity of letter names at a minimum of 40 letters per minute

R.11.1.13 Read grade level text fluently at a minimum of 40 words per minute

R.10.1.5 Read during independent reading time

R.11.1.14 Read familiar grade level texts using appropriate rhythm, pace, phrasing, punctuation, and intonation

 

Rationale

Fluency is a cornerstone of successful reading. “Fluency is important because it provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension,” (NIHL, 2001, p.22). The National Reading Panel report concluded that repeated reading and monitored oral reading increases fluency. Familiar Reading is a method of repeated reading with support and guidance from the teacher.

 

 

Materials

Previously read texts that the child can read with 90-95% accuracy (independent level). Texts should include a variety of genres such as:

  • Guided Reading Books

  • Poems

  • Small copies of Shared Reading books

 

Additional materials based on the needs of the child may include:

  • Decodable texts

  • ABC books

  • Letter books

  • ABC charts or cards

  • Sight word cards

  • Sight phrase cards (see sample list)

 

Store texts in individual student boxes.

 

Direct Explanation

Each day we need to practice reading. You will select a book, chart or poem from your familiar reading box and read it to yourself. Read orally so you can hear how you sound when you read.

 

Model Procedures for Familiar Reading

  1. Model How to get the boxes and replace them.

  2. How to take all the books out and replace each one as it is read.

  3. How to begin reading again if all books are completed before familiar reading time is over.

  4. How to read orally, but quietly.

  5. Demonstrate the signal for replacing the books and putting the boxes away.

 

Guided Practice

Practice reading the texts in guided reading groups. After the guided reading lesson, have each student reread the text independently and with a partner. Then have students place the texts in the familiar reading box.

 

Independent Practice

Students will read familiar texts from their familiar reading boxes for 10-15 minutes daily. Texts will be read and reread to develop fluency.

 

After the students have achieved a reading level of 8-10, timed fluency practices may be added to the familiar reading time. Help students select one of their familiar reading texts for practice for five days in a row. The first day, time the students’ reading for one minute and have each student place a sticky note on the page where they stop reading. The next day, students begin at the beginning of the book for the timed fluency check and move the sticky note to the new stopping point.

 

In addition to continuous texts, children may also practice fluency with ABC charts, letter cards, known sight words and known sight phrases. These items would be in the familiar reading box along with the texts.

 

During the last 2-3 minutes of guided reading, ask children to practice reading KNOWN sight words or sight phrases. (See list.)

Application /Assessment

After the students have achieved a reading level of 8-10, the teacher will regularly assess students for fluency by timing the reading for one minute and calculating the number of words read per minute.

 

After the students have achieved a reading level of 8-10, timed fluency practices may be added to the familiar reading time. Help students select one of their familiar reading texts for practice for five days in a row. The first day, time the students’ reading for one minute and have each student place a sticky note on the page where they stop reading. The next day, students begin at the beginning of the book for the timed fluency check and move the sticky note to the new stopping point.

 

Time

Materials

Role of Child

Role of Teacher

Independent Reading

12-15 Minutes

Previously read texts that the child can read with 90-95% accuracy. Texts should include a variety of genres.

 

Additional materials, based on the needs of the child may include:

  • Decodable texts

  • ABC books, charts, or cards

  • Sight word cards

 

 

 

Quietly reread continuous texts.

 

 

 

Practice items in isolation to build automaticity with known information.

Monitor reading and provide coaching and feedback to individual children.

 

Take oral reading records of 2-3 children. Provide feedback.

 

 

Take one-minute fluency checks of 2-3 children. Provide feedback.

 

Take one-minute fluency checks for letter naming if needed.

2-3 Minutes

High frequency words and phrases.

Practice to build automaticity with words and phrases in isolation.

Monitor high risk children.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tier II Additions

  • Include decodable texts so children can practice familiar patterns to fluency.

  • Allow student to read familiar reading books to younger students in a cross age tutoring arrangement.

  • Have an adult or another student from a cross age peer tutoring program complete the independent fluency check.

  • Provide cut-out window frame that allows student to see one line or phrase at a time.

  • Wear headphones to muffle sounds of other students reading or other room noises.

  • Have student use a device to minimize distractions from other children and hear themselves better. This can be purchased or constructed from PVC pipe.

  • Make sure that any books, phases, sight words, letters used in fluency practice are on student’s independent level (95-100% accuracy).

  • Have student mark where they stopped reading during their fluency check with a small sticker. After each fluency check, put new small sticker so student can see their progress. An adult or other student should reinforce student’s progress by verbally reviewing results.

  • Work with Speech Pathologist to identify “fear sounds/words” for students that stutter to provide additional wait time before correcting.

 

Tier II Assessments

  • Work with Speech Pathologist to identify “fear sounds/words” for students that stutter and take this into consideration in how it will affect fluency rate.

  • Provide assessment reading materials in appropriate media (example: Braille, large print).

  • Allow use of Page Fluffers (foam sheets between pages) to enable students with fine motor or physical disabilities to turn pages easily.

 

Tier III Accommodations/Modifications

  • Use an activity schedule or checklist outlining steps of tasks involved in familiar reading, i.e., 1) Find basket 2) Choose book 3) Read 4) Return book to basket 5) Put basket away.

  • Have peer buddy or helper perform tasks involved in familiar reading i.e., locating basket, asking student which book to read, telling student to read, putting book back in basket, putting basket away.

  • Read along with a tape-recorded version of familiar reading or guided practice book.

  • Read guided practice book that has been scanned into reading software (such as Kursweil).

  • Use an activity schedule or checklist outlining steps of tasks involved in independent guided reading , i.e., 1) Read independently 2) Read with a partner 3) Return book to basket

  • Provide colored overlays for students with visual perception problems

  • Select book for independent practice and color codes it. Each day the book is used a check mark is placed on the color code sticker. After five checks the student and teacher choose the next book.

  • Have another student or adult mark stopping point.

  • Allow student to read in a study carrel during familiar and/or independent reading.

  • Adapt books for page turning to assist children with physical disabilities. For example, put paperclips on pages to make them easier to flip, use Page Fluffers (foam sheets between pages) or make slides of pages so a child can hit a button on the computer to turn pages.

  • Have the student continue to read and/or reread the entire selection and time each reading. Encourage the student to “beat their time.” Provide student with graph paper or chart to monitor their progress.

  • Time the student reading a teacher selected passage during independent reading. Have the student continue to reread the passage and time each reading. Encourage the student to “beat their time.” Provide student with graph paper or chart to monitor their progress.

  • Reduce the number of books allowed in the familiar reading basket.

 

Tier III Assessment

  • Use same modifications and accommodations used during instruction when assessing the student.

  • Use rhymes or short poems rather than stories.

 

Tiers IV and V Modifications

These two Tiers would be the same as Tier II with more opportunities to reread the stories. Stories may need to be simplified and the language made less complex. Use computer to remake the book in its simplified form. Allow students to use augmentative/alternative communication systems to “read” the book themselves.

 

Assessment

  • Use same modifications and accommodations used during instruction when assessing the student.

  • Use simplified computer stories rather than stories.

 

 

Familiar Reading –

 

Sample Phrases for Repeated Reading Practice

 

These phrases are taken from The Fluent Reader and contain the first 100 words from the Fry Instant Word List (1980), which represent 50 percent of all the words children encounter in elementary school reading. Refer to The Fluent Reader for additional phrases.

 

You and I A long time

He called me He has it

Come and get it With his mom

Can you see? I like him

 

References:

Rasinski, Timothy. (2003). The Fluent Reader. Scholastic, New York.

 

Copyright © 2006 Arkansas Department of Education. All rights reserved. School districts may reproduce these materials for in-school student use only. No resale. Materials may not be reproduced, distributed or sold for commercial use or profit. ADE employees are not authorized to waive these restrictions.

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