Arkansas State Personnel Development Grant

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K-5 Fluency #4

Guided Reading

Grades K-4

 

Fluency

 

Common Core State Standards

• RF.K.4 Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding.
• RL.K.10 Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.
• RI.K.10 Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.
• RF.1.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
a. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
b. Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expressive readings.
c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
• RL.1.10 With prompting and support, read prose and poetry of appropriate complexity for grade 1.
• RI.1.10 With prompting and support, read informational texts appropriately complex for grade 1.
• RF.2.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension
a. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
b. Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expressive readings.
c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
• RL.2.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories and poetry, in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
• RI.2.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
• RF.3.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
a. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
b. Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings
c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding rereading as necessary.
• RL.3.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 2-3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
• RI.3.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 2-3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
• RF.4.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
a. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
b. Read grade level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
• RL.4.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the 4-5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
• RI.4.10 By the end of the year, read an comprehend informational, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 4-5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
• RF.5.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
a. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
b. Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
• RL.5.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry at the high end of the grades 4-5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
• RI.5.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4-5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

 

 

Rationale

Fluency is the ability to read a text accurately, quickly and with expression. It provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension. Fluency is addressed in the guided reading session in several ways.

  • Choosing texts at the student’s instructional level (90%-94% accuracy) allows the student to attend to meaning, which influences the way the text is fluently read.

  • Teaching students to self-monitor and quickly self-correct, using appropriate strategies, allows them to read more fluently.

  • Re-reading the same text for a second time, with teacher monitoring, allows students to practice correctly and to have their first opportunity to read that text more fluently. Usually, that text will become part of the collection in the student’s familiar reading basket and will be re-read multiple times until the text becomes independent level.

 

Materials

Texts should include a variety of genres such as;

  • instructional level guided reading texts, fiction and non-fiction

  • instructional level poems

 

Direct Explanation

Fluent readers orally read text as if they were speaking it; reading and pausing according to the punctuation, using appropriate intonation and expression, and accurately decoding the text. The focus is on the meaning of the passage. Teacher will model this kind of fluent oral reading in Read Aloud, but will remind students of that modeling when they begin to read their own text.

 

For example, “After you read this the first time, you will read this again, only this time, you will read it out loud, softly, so that your neighbor can read his without being disturbed. Think about how I read to you from books and how that sounds and try to make your reading, out loud, sound like talking.”

 

Model

Most of the teacher modeling of fluent reading takes place in Read Aloud. However, teacher modeling of reading a sentence or paragraph from the guided reading text is certainly appropriate. After the first reading and teaching points of the lesson, the teacher could model fluently reading a portion of the text.

On page one, Johnny says “No no! Get down Spot! You can’t have that cookie!” Notice how I read that. You can tell that Johnny meant business with that dog by the way my voice went up and down and got loud in the parts with the exclamation marks. Now you read your book out loud and let the marks help you know how to use your voice.”

 

Guided Practice

Students read the text the first time, after teacher-led preview of the book, making predictions about text, locating unknown words on the pages, and understanding the purpose for reading. The teacher listens to the first reading and scaffolds with prompts that help students self-correct. The second reading provides the opportunity to read more fluently.

  • When children are in the emergent stage of reading, the teacher and students reread the texts chorally to promote fluency.

  • In later stages, guided rereading procedures are used to promote fluency. Guided Rereading: The teacher explicitly models reading with phrasing and expression. She then gives feedback to students as they reread.

  • After every guided reading lesson, the students participate in Echo Reading. Echo Reading: Students are paired so that one is a bit stronger than the other. The stronger reader reads a page of the text, and then the second reader reads the same page.

Options: The students may reread alone, with a partner, in a choral reading with teacher, or in parts with other students. The teacher monitors to assure correct practice and to offer additional prompts for self-correcting and fluent reading.

 

Independent Practice

The independent practice for guided reading texts occurs in Familiar Reading. The students will reread the texts they have previously read in Guided Reading. The teacher will take Fluency Checks on those books with each child to monitor progress as needed.

 

Assessment

We would expect to see skills in fluent reading applied during self-selected, independent reading. Assessment would include:

 

  • DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency (for screening and monitoring progress, beginning of the year, mid-year, and end-of-year).

  • Informal Fluency Checks on independent level texts on a weekly basis.

  • Accuracy checks (90%-94% is instructional level, 95%-100% is independent level).

 

Tier II Additions

  • Ask student to reread a phrase or sentence that has been read in a monotone voice using emotion and appropriate pacing during Guided Practice.

  • Read same sentence two times, once in a monotone voice and the other with emotion during Guided Practice. Ask student to identify the sentence that sounds the best.

  • Encourage student to glide finger under the sentence to help in maintaining focus during Independent and/or Echo Reading.

  • Provide cut-out window frame that allows student to see one line or phrase at a time during Independent and/or Echo Reading.

  • Wear headphones to muffle sounds of other students reading or other room noises when reading independently.

  • Use a device (phonics phone) to minimize distractions from other children and allow student to hear himself/herself better. This device can be purchased or constructed from PVC pipe.

  • Form a trio for Echo Reading and have the identified student read last.

  • Reread text using Readers’ Theatre or Radio Reading.

  • Ask student to look at pictures in the book and describe what is happening during Guided Practice. After they give a description, ask them to predict what will happen next.

  • Seat student near teacher and away from distractions.

  • Allow the student to stand while reading.

  • Assist students in making predications by pointing out how titles and pictures tell what a book is about.

  • Engage the student by relating book topic to events relevant to the life of the student as part of teacher-led preview.

  • Show student how to analyze context clues to figure out the meaning of unfamiliar words during Guided Practice.

  • Provide reading materials in appropriate media (example: Braille, large print).

  • Work with speech pathologist to identify “fear sounds/words” for students and provide additional wait time before correcting.

 

Tier II Assessment

  • Work with Speech Pathologist to identify “fear sounds/words” for students that stutter and take this into consideration how this will affect fluency rate.

  • Provide reading materials in appropriate media (example: Braille, large print).

 

Tier III Accommodations/Modifications

  • Teach students to read with emotion by using strong gestures while signing in American Sign Language.

  • Listen and read along with a taped version of the book.

  • Listen and read along with text to speech version (Kursweil or other scanning software) of the book.

  • Pre-read the text with an adult, peer tutor, or recorded version before Guided Reading activity.

  • Practice reading phrases or sentences with emotion in a small group or with an adult or peer tutor before participating in Guided Reading activity.

  • Provide additional practice on words missed by student during Guided Reading practice.

  • Place color-coded stickers on familiar reading basket and books for individual students.

 

Tier III Assessment

Assess reading with a modified rubric assessing for increased accuracy, fluency, and the correct prosodic features for each passage.

 

Tier IV and V Modifications

  • Use previously listed modifications and/or additions that are needed by the student to read a passage.

  • Allow student to use augmentative/alternative communication system.

  • Allow student to have multiple repetitions to gain fluency, accuracy and to include prosodic features in a small group session.

  • Tape (video or audio) the student to allow them to self-correct.

 

Assessment

Assess reading with a modified rubric assessing for increased accuracy, fluency, and the correct prosodic features for each passage.

 

Resources:

Put Reading First

A Focus On Fluency, PREL

Apprenticeship In Literacy, Dorn and French

Guiding Readers And Writers, Fountas and Pinnell

The Fluent Reader, Rasinski

 

Copyright © 2006 Arkansas Department of Education. All rights reserved. School districts may reproduce these materials for in-school student use only. No resale. Materials may not be reproduced, distributed or sold for commercial use or profit. ADE employees are not authorized to waive these restrictions.

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