Arkansas State Personnel Development Grant

1401 W. Capital Ave.
Suite #450
Little Rock, AR 72201
Phone: (501) 319-7333
Fax: (501) 379-8387

Fluency Strategies

 

  1. Require students to read new stories and reread familiar stories every day. Texts that students are asked to read on their own should be relatively easy for them.

  2. Paired (Partner) Reading – Two students read the same reading passage aloud. The first student reads and the second student follows along. The roles are then reversed. The second student rereads the same passage and the first student follows along. Each student uses error correction procedures when needed. The use of peer partners increases the amount of practice time for students.

  3. Echo Reading – One student or teacher reads a phrase in the sentence and the other student follows by reading the same phrase in an echo pattern. This alternate reading pattern continues until the sentence or selection is read.

  4. Tape-Assisted Reading – A reading passage is tape-recorded. The student reads the print aloud in synchronization with the taped passage. Students can listen to the taped passage and follow along with it before reading the passage aloud. Students should reread the passage several times.

  5. Chunking – The teacher selects familiar text and divides it into phrases or groups of words (chunks) by making slash marks to indicate the phrases. Students practice reading the phrases fluently. Slash marks are removed as student learns to read the selection in units.

  6. Use reading passages with word counts for each line in the margin to facilitate counting the number of words read during times reading.

  7. Provide graph paper for student to graph the number of words read correctly during timed reading.

  8. Ask fluent readers to model oral reading for nonfluent readers first then nonfluent reader repeats readings of text.

  9. Encourage student to glide finger under the sentence to help in maintaining focus.

  10. Provide cut-out window frame that allows student to see one line or phrase at a time.

  11. Have student tape record himself/herself reading familiar material. Student can then listen to the tape to check their fluency and ability to read with emotion.

  12. Read paragraph aloud before having the student read it.

  13. For students that enjoy competition, time yourself reading the passage. Then time the student reading it. Compete for the fastest time.

  14. Reduce group size to allow for more practice and feedback. For children with extreme learning problems, the ideal group size is two to four students.

  15. Change text size, spacing, color or background.

  16. Adapt books for page turning to assist children with physical disabilities. For example, put paperclips on pages to make them easier to flip, use Page Fluffers (foam sheets between pages) or make slides of pages so a child can hit a button on the computer to turn pages.

  17. Put color coded stickers on familiar reading basket and books for individual students.

  18. Children who may be distracted by the voices of others may find a quiet corner in which to read alone.

  19. Allow student to read familiar reading books to younger students in a cross age tutoring arrangement.

  20. The independent fluency check is done with an adult or another student from a cross age peer tutoring program.

  21. Provide cut-out window frame that allows student to see one line or phrase at a time.

  22. Wear headphones to muffle sounds of other students reading or other room noises.

  23. Some children may need to use a device to minimize distractions from other children and hear themselves better. This can be purchased or constructed from PVC pipe.

  24. Make sure that any books, phrases, sight words, letters used in fluency practice are on student’s independent level (90-95% accuracy).

  25. Have student mark where they stopped reading during their fluency check with a smiley face sticker. After each fluency check, put new smiley face sticker so student can see their progress. An adult or other student should reinforce student’s progress by verbally reviewing results.

  26. Use on activity schedule or checklist outlining steps of tasks involved in familiar reading, i.e., 1) Find basket 2) Choose book 3) Read 4) Return book to basket 5) Put basket away.

  27. Peer buddy or helper will perform tasks involved in familiar reading i.e., locating basket, asking student which book to read, telling student to read, putting book back in basket, putting basket away.

  28. Read along with a tape recorded version of familiar reading or guided practice book.

  29. Read guided practice book that has been scanned into text to speech software (such as Kursweil).

  30. Use an activity schedule or checklist outlining steps of tasks involved in independent guided reading , i.e., 1) Read independently 2) Read with a partner 3) Return book to basket.

  31. Provide colored overlays for maximizing background contrast to assist students with visual perception problems.

  32. Student and teacher select book for independent practice and color code it. Each day the book is used, a check mark is placed on the color coded sticker. After five checks the student and teacher choose the next book.

  33. Have another student or adult mark stopping point.

  34. Allow student to read in a study carrel during familiar and/or independent reading

  35. Time the student reading the entire independent reading selection. Have the student continue to reread the entire selection and time each reading. Encourage the student to “beat their time.” Provide student with graph paper or chart to monitor their progress.

  36. Time the student reading a teacher selected passage during independent reading. Have the student continue to reread the passage and time each reading. Encourage the student to “beat their time.” Provide student with graph paper or chart to monitor their progress.

  37. Provide reading materials in appropriate media (example: Braille, large print).

  38. Student will listen to story on tape to reinforce emphasis on voice tones, inflections, etc.

  39. Color code or highlight points of emphasis with the student.

  40. Pair a visual student with a visually impaired student who is visually impaired.

  41. Have visual consultant read with student during Shared Reading.

  42. Modify the format of print on the page.

  43. Pair with student who models good intonation and pausing during choral reading.

  44. Visually signal students to redirect attention.

  45. Role play.

  46. Interpreter signs text during Shared Reading and student uses American Sign Language (ASL) to sign choral response.

  47. Let student serve as teacher assistant and use pointer with text as teacher reads.

  48. Ask student who is non-verbal to indicate yes or no (either verbally or with assistive technology) if text is read with correct intonation and pausing.

  49. To indicate transfer of use of intonation and pausing, observe to see if student with hearing impairment uses strong signing for emphasis and pausing in appropriate situations during signing of text.

  50. Student use fingers or pointer under text as they read in small group or with an adult.

  51. Provide cut-out window frame that allows student to see one line or phrase at a time as they read in small group or with an adult.

  52. Reduce amount of graphics in the reading material for student that are visually distracted as they read in small group or with an adult.

  53. Shared reading scanned into reading software (such as Kursweil).

  54. Student will read the story on tape after Shared Reading.

  55. Pre-teach or re-teach choral text using sentence strips.

  56. Assess student’s use of intonation by having students choose phrases from a list that should be read with strong feeling.

  57. Assess student’s use of pausing by asking them to read aloud a teacher selected paragraph or selection.

  58. Ask student to reread a phrase or sentence that has been read in a monotone voice using emotion and appropriate pacing during Guided Practice.

  59. During Guided Practice, read same sentence two times once in a monotone voice and the other with emotion. Ask student to identify the sentence that sounds the best.

  60. Encourage student to glide finger under the sentence to help in maintaining focus during Independent and/or Echo Reading.

  61. Provide cut-out window frame that allows student to see one line or phrase at a time during Independent and/or Echo Reading.

  62. Wear headphones to muffle sounds of other students reading or other room noises when reading independently.

  63. Some children may need to use a device to minimize distractions made from other children and hear themselves better. This can be purchased or constructed from PVC pipe.

  64. Form a trio for Echo Reading and have the identified student read last.

  65. Reread text as a Readers’ Theatre or Radio Reading.

  66. Teach students to read with emotion by using strong gestures while signing in American Sign Language.

  67. Listen and read along with a taped version of the book.

  68. Listen and read along with text to speech version (Kursweil or other scanning software) of the book.

  69. Ask student to look at pictures in the book and describe what is happening during Guided Practice. After they give a description, ask them to predict what will happen next.

  70. Pre-read the text with an adult, peer tutor, or recorded version before Guided Reading activity.

  71. Practice reading phrases or sentences with emotion in a small group or with an adult or peer tutor before participating in Guided Reading activity.

  72. Seat student near teacher and away from distractions.

  73. Allow the student to stand while reading.

  74. Assist students in making predictions by pointing out how titles and pictures tell what a book is about.

  75. Engage the student by relating book topic to events relevant to the life of the student as part of teacher-led preview.

  76. Provide additional practice on words missed by student during guided practice reading.

  77. Show student how to analyze context clues to figure out the meaning of unfamiliar words during Guided Practice.

 

 

 

Sources:

 

CLD INFOSHEETS: Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities in Reading: Developing Reading Fluency. Council for Learning Disabilities. http://www.cldinternational.org/c/@eknzPtgNbjnyk/Pages/fluency.html. Retrieved 11/4/2003.

 

Research to Practice Brief: Improving Secondary Education and Transition Services through Research. March 2002. Vol. 1, Issue 1. Never Too Late: Approaches to Reading Instruction for Secondary Students with Disabilities. http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/info_briefs/ncset/too-late.html. Retrieved 8/9/2004.

 

Strategies + Technology = Solutions for Reading Challenges. Council for Exceptional Children Today. Vol. 10. No. 1. June/July 2003.

No Events To Display...
Privacy Statement | Site Map | Staff Login | Web site design and hosting by Web International
© Copyright 2010 Arkansas State Personnel Development Grant • All Rights Reserved
buy cialis in uk no prescription cialis 20 mg uk kamagra najtaniej uk selling kamagra in the uk legally