Arkansas State Personnel Development Grant

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K-5 FLUENCY #2

Familiar Reading  

Grades 2-4

 

Fluency

 

Common Core State Standards

  • RF.2.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension
            1. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
            2. Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expressive readings.
            3. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

  • RL.2.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories and poetry, in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

  • RI.2.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

  • RF.3.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
            1. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
            2. Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings
            3. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding rereading as necessary.

  • RL.3.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 2-3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

  • RI.3.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 2-3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

  • RF.4.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
            1. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
            2. Read grade level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
            3. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

  • RL.4.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the 4-5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

  • RI.4.10 By the end of the year, read an comprehend informational, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 4-5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

  • RF.5.4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
            1. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
            2. Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
            3. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

  • RL.5.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry at the high end of the grades 4-5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

  • RI.5.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4-5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

 

 

Rationale

Fluency is a cornerstone of successful reading. “Fluency is important because it provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension.” (NIHL, 2001, p.22) The National Reading Panel report concluded that repeated reading and monitored oral reading increases fluency. Familiar Reading is a method of repeated reading with support and guidance from the teacher.

 

Materials

Previously read texts that the child can read with 90-95% accuracy (independent level). Texts should include a variety of genres such as:

  • Guided Reading Books

  • Poems

 

Additional materials based on the needs of the child that may include:

  • Decodable texts

  • Sight word cards

  • Sight phrase cards (see sample list)

 

Store texts in individual student boxes.

 

 

 

 

Direct Explanation

Each day we need to practice reading. You will select a book, chart or poem from your familiar reading box and read it to yourself. Read orally so you can hear how you sound when you read. At the end of familiar reading, we will practice sight words and phrases for 2-3 minutes.”

 

Model Procedures for Familiar Reading

  1. Model how to get the boxes and replace them.

  2. How to take all the books out and replace each one as it is read.

  3. How to begin reading again if all books are completed before familiar reading time is over.

  4. How to read orally, but quietly.

  5. Demonstrate the signal for replacing the books and putting the boxes away.

 

Guided Practice

Practice reading the texts in guided reading groups. After the guided reading lesson, have each student reread the text independently and with a partner. Then have students place the texts in the familiar reading box.

 

Practice reading the phrase cards and sight word cards in the guided reading group.

 

Independent Practice

Students will read familiar texts from their familiar reading boxes for 10-15 minutes daily. Texts will be read and reread to develop fluency.

 

In addition to continuous texts, children may also practice fluency with ABC charts, letter cards, known sight words and known sight phrases. These items would be in the familiar reading box along with the texts.

 

During the last 2-3 minutes of guided reading, ask children to practice reading KNOWN sight words or sight phrases. (See sample list of phrases.)

 

Assessment

Individual timed fluency checks by the teacher: After the students have achieved a reading level of 8-10, the teacher will regularly assess students for fluency by timing the reading for one minute and calculating the number of words read per minute.

 

The teacher sets the timer for one minute and student reads familiar text. Words Per Minute (WPM) is documented. The teacher will ask one or two questions to check for comprehension and will encourage proper intonation and phrasing during timed readings.

 

 

 

Buddy fluency checks: Students are paired together to read a familiar passage. This could be a passage typed onto a single page or a section of a familiar reading book. This passage will be used for one week. The teacher sets the timer for one minute and one student begins to read. The other student marks the stopping point (word) with a sticky note.

 

Then the teacher sets the timer for one minute and the other student reads for one minute. When the timer goes off, the student not reading, marks the stopping point with a sticky note. Students count the number of words each one read in a minute (WPM) and chart it on their individual fluency graphs.

 

The procedure is repeated on the same text for five times (days). The goal is for the student to read more WPM than last read on that passage; not to compete with other students.

 

If a student is just reading for speed, without proper phrasing, intonation, and comprehension, stop him/her and explain what you are expecting. If the student continues to exhibit these behaviors, work on aspects of fluency other than

speed rather than proceeding with the timed readings.

 

Time

Materials

Role of Child

Role of Teacher

Independent Reading

12-15 Minutes

Previously read texts that the child can read with 90-95% accuracy. Texts should include a variety of genres.

 

 

Additional materials, based on the needs of the child may include:

  • Decodable texts

  • Sight word cards

 

 

 

Quietly reread continuous texts.

 

 

 

 

Practice items in isolation to build automaticity with known information.

Monitor reading and provide coaching and feedback to individual children.

 

Take accuracy checks of 2-3 children. Provide feedback.

 

Take one-minute fluency check of 2-3 children. Provide feedback.

 

Partner Re-reading

5 Minutes

Assigned passage that child can read with 90-95% accuracy.

Reread assigned passage for one-minute.

 

Monitor and provide feedback to partner.

 

Graph fluency rate.

Monitor one-minute timed readings and assist children with graphing.

2-3 Minutes

High frequency words and phrases.

Practice to build automaticity with words and phrases in isolation.

Monitor high risk children.

 

 

 

Sample Phrases for Repeated Reading Practice

These phrases are taken from The Fluent Reader and contain the second 100 words from the Fry Instant Word List (1980), which represent 50 percent of all the words children encounter in elementary school reading. Refer to The Fluent Reader for additional phrases.

 

Just the same My last name

We want to go Right now

Big and small Help me out

Try your best Move over

 

 

 

Tier II Additions

  • Put color coded stickers on familiar reading basket and books for individual students.

  • Include decodable texts so that children can practice familiar patterns to increase fluency.

  • Children who may be distracted by the voices of others may find a quiet corner in which to read alone.

  • Allow students to read familiar reading books to younger students in a cross age tutoring arrangement.

  • The independent fluency check is done with an adult or another student from a cross age peer tutoring program.

  • Provide cut-out window frames that allow student to see one line or phrase at a time.

  • Encourage student to glide finger under the sentence to help in maintaining focus.

  • Wear headphones to muffle sounds of other students reading or other room noises.

  • Use a device (phonics phone) to minimize distractions from other children and allow student to hear himself/herself better. This device can be purchased or constructed from PVC pipe.

  • Make sure that any books, phases, sight words, letters used in fluency practice are on student’s independent level (90-95% accuracy).

  • Have student mark where they stopped reading during their fluency check with a small sticker. After each fluency check, put new small sticker so student can see their progress. An adult or other student should reinforce student’s progress by verbally reviewing results.

 

Tier III Accommodations/Modifications

  • Use an activity schedule or checklist outlining steps of tasks involved in familiar reading, i.e., 1)Find basket 2)Choose book 3)Read 4)Return book to basket 5) Put basket away

  • Have a peer buddy or helper perform tasks involved in familiar reading, i.e., locating basket, asking student which book to read, telling student to read, putting book back in basket, putting basket away.

  • Read along with a tape recorded version of familiar reading or guided practice book.

  • Read guided practice book that has been scanned into reading software (such as Kursweil).

  • Use an activity schedule or checklist outlining steps of tasks involved in independent guided reading, i.e., 1) Read independently 2) Read with a partner 3)Return book to basket.

  • Provide colored overlays for students with visual perception problems.

  • Student and teacher select book for independent practice and color code it. Each day the book is used, a check mark is placed on the color coded sticker. After five checks the student and teacher choose the next book.

  • Have another student or adult mark the stopping point.

  • Allow student to read in a study carrel during familiar and/or independent reading.

  • Adapt books for page turning to assist children with physical disabilities. For example, put paperclips on pages to make them easier to flip or make slides of pages so a child can hit a button on the computer to turn pages.

  • Time the student reading the entire independent reading selection. Have the student continue to reread the entire selection and time each reading. Encourage the student to “beat their time.” Provide student with graph paper or chart to monitor their progress.

  • Time the student reading a teacher selected passage during independent reading. Have the student continue to reread the passage and time each reading. Encourage the student to “beat their time.” Provide student with graph paper or chart to monitor their progress.

 

Tiers IV and V Modifications

  • These would be the same as Tier II with more opportunities to reread the stories.

  • Stories may need to be simplified and the language made less complex.

  • Use computer to remake the book in its simplified form.

  • Allow students to use augmentative/alternative communication systems to “read” the book themselves.

 

Assessment

  • Use same modifications and accommodations used during instruction when assessing the student.

  • Use simplified computer stories rather than stories.

 

 

References

Put Reading First

Rasinski, Timothy. (2003). The Fluent Reader. Scholastic, New York.

 

Copyright © 2006 Arkansas Department of Education. All rights reserved. School districts may reproduce these materials for in-school student use only. No resale. Materials may not be reproduced, distributed or sold for commercial use or profit. ADE employees are not authorized to waive these restrictions.

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