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K-5 COMPREHENSION #2

Mini-lesson: Story Elements: Identifying Problem and Goal

Grades 2-4

 

Common Core State Standards

• RL.2.1 Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
• RL.2.3 Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges
• RL.2.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories and poetry, in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
• RL.3.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
• RL.3.3 Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.
• RL.3.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 2-3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
• RL.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
• RL.4.3 Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).
• RL.4.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 4-5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

 

 

Rationale

Understanding story elements increases comprehension because the structure of fiction becomes the scaffold for understanding the meaning of the story.

 

Materials

  • Class set of Big Al, by Andrew Clements

 

Direct Explanation/Model

1. Show students the book cover. Point out the author and illustrator and give a little background about them from the inside of the back cover. Give a brief overview of the story. “This is a story about a fish who was lonely and wanted friends.”

2. Discuss students’ background knowledge by asking them if they ever experienced difficulty in making friends.

3. Let students do a quick-book-look. Can they predict why he might not have any friends? Can they tell from the pictures what he tries to do? Be sure to use the words “disguise,” “bulged” and “tremendous” in this conversation. Locate them in the text.

4. Set the purpose for reading. Say, “We have been working on using our knowledge of story elements to help us understand. We have identified that Big Al is the main character and he has a problem - he’s lonely. His goal is to make friends. As you read, see if you can find the ways he attempts to make friends. Mark the text with a sticky note each time he makes an attempt. Does he succeed?”

 

 

 

Guided Practice

  1. Students read the text. Teacher will circulate among the students and provide scaffolding and/or feedback as needed.

  2. Have students summarize the story (problem, goal, resolution).

  3. Ask: What specifically did Big Al do to make friends? Have students share places that they sticky noted and read the particular part of the text to verify the answer. Prompt the students to discuss how Big Al’s appearance both hindered and helped him.

  4. Discuss how knowledge of story elements aided in comprehension.

 

Independent Practice

  1. Ask students to reread the text with a partner to build fluency and practice.

  2. Students will place the text in their familiar reading basket.

 

 

Assessment

Teacher-made essay test where students read a selection and determine the main character’s goal

 

 

Tier II Additions

  • Use graphic organizers to help student with problem, goal and resolution.

  • Use appropriate medium to allow for any physical disability.

 

Tier II Assessment/Application

Utilizing appropriate accommodations, student will read a selection, determine the main character’s goal, and take a teacher-made essay test.

 

 

Tier III Accommodations/Modifications

  • Use graphic organizers to help student with problem, goal and resolution or allow student to respond to questions about these areas in mini lessons and then help student put the summary together.

  • Allow the student to hear story multiple times, using taped story or peer reader or assistive technology.

  • Have the student develop a storyboard.

  • Review vocabulary utilized in the story.

 

Tier III Assessment

Test is read to the student and student is allowed to answer orally or with multiple-choice answers, rather than written essay answers

 

 

 

 

 

Tier IV Modifications

Pre-teach vocabulary utilized in the story

Use graphic organizers to help student with problem, goal and resolution or allow student to respond to questions about these areas in mini lessons and then help student put the summary together.

Allow the student to hear story multiple times, using taped story or peer reader or assistive technology.

Review vocabulary utilized in the story.

 

Tier IV Assessment

Test is read to the student and student is allowed to answer orally or with multiple-choice answers, rather than written essay answers.

 

Tier V Modifications

  • Pre-teach vocabulary utilized in the story

  • Allow the student to hear story multiple times, using taped story or peer reader or assistive technology.

  • Retell the story to the student using shorter sentences and/or simplified language and supported by pictures/icons.

  • Review vocabulary utilized in the story.

 

Tier V Assessment

Test is read to the student using shorter and more simplified language, with the student’s short answers given by utilizing pictures/icons or augmentative/alternative communication.

 

References

 

CIERA (2001). Put Reading First: Reseach Building Blocks For Teaching Children To Read. Washington D.C.: National Institute For Literacy, National Institute Of Child Health And Human Development, and U.S. Department of Education

 

Harvey, S. and Goudvis, A. (2000). Strategies That Work. Ontario, Canada: Stenhouse Publishers

 Copyright © 2006 Arkansas Department of Education. All rights reserved. School districts may reproduce these materials for in-school student use only. No resale. Materials may not be reproduced, distributed or sold for commercial use or profit. ADE employees are not authorized to waive these restrictions.

Sample Guided Reading Lesson

 

Text: “The Living Desert,” an article from Images, Volume 4, # 1, pages 20-29. Houghton Mifflin and Company.

 

  • Introduce the text.

  1. Have the students do a quick-book-look. Will the text be fiction or non-fiction?

 

  1. Discuss students’ prior knowledge of the desert.

 

  1. Look specifically at the names of plants and animals throughout the article. (Some of these are in the captions and text boxes.)

 

  1. Take them to page 24 and point out that the author has provided a support with a pronunciation key for a word that may be unfamiliar to most readers. Pronounce saguaro as shown in the pronunciation key. Turn to page 26 and have them use the pronunciation key to pronounce gila.

 

  1. Have students read the preface (page 20) and the first and last paragraph of the article. Based on this reading, have students make predictions about the information they will read in this article. Write the prediction in the form of a question on a chart. How do plants and animals cope with the climate in the desert?

 

  1. Explain that students will use two-column note taking to record how each animal and plant copes in the desert. Model how to take two-column notes with information on the “desert tortoise,” page 22.

 

  • Read the text.

  1. Students will read the entire text silently and take two-column notes on how plants and animals in the desert cope with their environment.

 

  • Revisit the text.

  1. Share two-column notes. Confirm students’ understanding of the text.

 

  • Teach for processing strategies.

  1. How did the text answer the prediction question? Reading the first and last paragraph of informational text is a strategy for helping to set a purpose for reading.

  2. How did the pictures, text boxes, and captions support the purpose for reading?

This information will be important to remember when reading science textbooks, social studies textbooks, brochures etc.

 

  • Extend the meaning of the text.

What conditions do animals in Arkansas have to cope with? Use available reference resources to investigate how animals in Arkansas cope with the environment.

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