Arkansas State Personnel Development Grant

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K-5 COMPREHENSION #4

 Mini-lesson: Making Connections

 Grades 2-4

 

 

Common Core State Standards

• RI.2.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
• RI.3.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 2-3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
• RI.4.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 4-5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
• RI.5.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4-5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

 

 

Rationale

Making connections is a comprehension skill that helps students understand text meaning. These connections can be divided into three types: 1) text to self, 2) text to text, and 3) text to world. Teaching them one-at-a-time is important, but it is also important to teach students how to use them flexibly. This lesson is focused on using the three types of connections, flexibly, on one text.

 

Materials

  • Student copies of Duke Ellington, by Andrea Davis Pinkney and Brian Pinkney

  • Sticky notes

 

Direct Explanation

When we read stories we make connections to our own experiences, such as Text-To-Self Connections (t-s), to other books we’ve read, Text-To-Text Connections (t-t), and to world issues, Text-To-World Connections (t-w). We have practiced reading books with sticky notes, marking pages where we made personal connections, and connections to other books that we have read, and even connections to things we know about in the world. We are going to practice making all of those connections with the book, Duke Ellington. When we know how to make all of these kinds of connections to what we read, it helps us get the meaning and understand what the author wants us to know about the story.”

 

Model

Teacher will introduce the book with a little information about the life of Duke Ellington. Read aloud the book and model thinking aloud about the connections, putting sticky notes on pages where the three types of connections are made. On the sticky notes, the teacher will write t-s (text to self), t-t (text to text), and t-w (text to world).

For example:

(t-s) When Duke quits playing, it reminds me of when I quit piano lessons. I quit after 2 years because I was tired of it.

 

(t-s) When Duke takes up his piano playing again, it reminds me that I have often wished I had kept taking piano lessons. Maybe I should start again.

 

(t-w) When Duke is entertaining at parties, pool halls, country clubs and cabarets it reminds me that people of all walks of life appreciate the talent of a good musician.

 

(t-w) People who listened to Duke on the radio felt like they were out on the town. Today, people make popcorn and rent movies and feel like they are at the movie theater.

 

Guided Practice

  1. As the teacher models, the students will record their own connections on paper or sticky notes on a clipboard, to share later in discussion.

  2. After the reading, students will share with a partner the connections, identifying if they were t-s, t-t, or t-w.

  3. Then in a whole group discussion, the teacher will ask a few students to share their connections and discuss the type of connections.

  4. In whole group discussion, the teacher will summarize the learning and talk again about how making connections, of all types, helps readers understand the meaning of the text.

 

Independent Practice

With self-selected reading material, students will use sticky notes and record connections and their types for whole group discussion on another day.

 

Assessment

On teacher-selected passage, the students will be able to list or place sticky notes on places in the text where they made connections. The students will also label the types of connections with t-s, t-t, and t-w.

 

Tier II Additions

  • Students will use sticky notes and record a connection for whole group discussion on another day, with self-selected reading material. (Each type of connection will be covered with one connection for the practice session.)

 

Tier II Assessment

On teacher-selected passage, the students will be able to list or place sticky notes on places in the text where they made connections. (Each type of connection will be covered with one connection for the practice session.)

 

 

 

 

 

Tier III Accommodations/Modifications

  • Students will label a connection (using a label that has one connection and its definition) for whole group discussion on another day with self-selected reading material. (Each type of connection will be covered with one connection for the practice session.)

 

Assessment

On teacher-selected passage, the students will be able to label places in the text where they made a connection. Each type of connection will be covered, however, only one connection for each assessment.

 

 

Tier IV Modifications

  • Pre-teach possible connections and their definitions.

  • Working 1:1 with paraprofessional, parent volunteer, or teach, on self-selected reading material, students will label a connection (using a label that has one connection and its definition).

  • Allow student to practice for a whole group discussion to be on another day.

 

Assessment

On teacher-selected passage, the students will be able to label places in the text where they made a connection. Each type of connection will be covered, however, only one connection for each assessment.

 

Tier V Modifications

  • Same as Tier IV, but shorter sessions and may need the text simplified.

  • Use picture/icon/drawing support.

 

Assessment

Student will indicate where they have made a connection when offered two possible passages.

 

References

 

Fountas, Irene and Gay Su Pinnell (2001). Guiding Readers and Writers Grades 3-6. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

 

Harvey, S. and Goudvis, A. (2000). Strategies That Work. Ontario, Canada: Stenhouse Publishers

 

Copyright © 2006 Arkansas Department of Education. All rights reserved. School districts may reproduce these materials for in-school student use only. No resale. Materials may not be reproduced, distributed or sold for commercial use or profit. ADE employees are not authorized to waive these restrictions. 

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