Arkansas State Personnel Development Grant

1401 W. Capital Ave.
Suite #450
Little Rock, AR 72201
Phone: (501) 319-7333
Fax: (501) 379-8387

9-12 Oral Reading Fluency Scale
Adapted Version of National Assessment of Educational Progress


Ratings of 3 and 4 indicate fluent reading.  Rating of 1 and 2 indicate that the student has still not achieved a minimal level of fluency for the grade level at which the passage is written.

Level 1 Reads primarily in a word-by-word fashion.  Occasional two-word and three-word phrases may occur, but these are infrequent.  Author’s meaningful syntax is generally not preserved.  Passage is read without expression or intonation.  Reading seems labored and difficult.
Level 2: Reads primarily in two-word phrases with occasional three-or four-word phrases.  Some word-by-word reading may be present.  Word groupings may be awkward and unrelated to the larger context of the sentence or passage.  Passage is read with little or inappropriate expression or intonation.
Level 3: Reads primarily in three- or four-word phrases.  Some smaller phrases may be present.  Most of the phrasing is appropriate and preserves the author’s syntax.  Some of the text is read with appropriate expression and intonation.
Level 4: Reads primarily in longer, meaningful phrases.  Although some regressions, repetitions, and deviations from the text may be present, these do not appear to detract from the overall structure or meaning of the passage.  The reading preserves the author’s syntax.  Most of the text is read with appropriate expression and intonation.  A sense of ease is present in the reader’s oral presentation.
  (Rasinski, p.174)
Instructions: Use as a screening instrument.  Have selected students read passages orally beginning with the easiest passage and progressing to the next level.  Note: This is not to be used as a formal assessment.

Tier II and Tier III  - Assessment Passages

Grade 4
Fire and Animals

Grade 5
The Mystery

Grade 6
Keep Your Distance

Grade 7

Guerilla Soldier

Grade 8
A Scientist’s Search 

Tiers IV & V Modifications

  • Check for fluency within the student’s recognition of icons, symbols, pictures, signs, or Braille (for student’s with a visual impairment) in their mode of communication.

Fire and Animals

The summer was a dry one, unusual for this area.  Trees and bushes in the forest wilted and died.  One afternoon a storm came to the forest.  Thunder was heard and lighting was seen.  Then it began to rain.  A spark touched the leaves and a fire began.  The fire spread quickly.  The animals warned each other as they hurried to escape the flames.  As the fire came closer, trees fell to the ground. Their branches were yellow, orange and red.  The smoke was so thick that the animals could hardly breathe.  Many couldn’t escape the danger of the flames.

The Mystery

Everyone turned to stare as a black hooded figure whizzed by on a skateboard.  It was a mystery because no one knew who the talented person was.  Ken saw the skateboarder slide down the library railing and disappear into the alley.  Nita followed the person from school and watched as a curb was jumped and a three hundred sixty degree turn was completed with ease.  One day Ken noticed a skateboard and a black hooded jacket next to Rose’s house.  He also saw a library book called Skate Board Tips in her desk at school.  Ken had solved the mystery.

Keep Your Distance

Elwood was considered a tough guy at Anderson School.  Everybody called him Sky.  They didn’t dare call him by his full name because that riled him.  He was colossal in size.  From far away Elwood looked like Mr. Wilson, a teacher, but the moment you saw Elwood’s shoes and faded, torn jeans, you knew it could only be Elwood.  He felt inferior because of his clothing, so he tried to make up for it by shocking people with his rude behavior and toughness.  Elwood didn’t have many friends, except for Bob who lived in the same old apartment building.

Guerilla Soldiers

The foreheads of the people glistened with sweat as they struggled forward under the hot sun of the tropics.  These people were guerillas who sincerely felt that their leader was the salvation of their country.  Their goal was to reach a distant army fort where they hoped to fire a rocket into the storeroom of the fort.  This would cause the gunpowder to erupt like a tinderbox.  A huge person bellowed an order from the leader as they trudged across the uninhabited land.  The guerillas hoped their attack would scare army soldiers and impress more local people to join them.

A Scientist’s Search

Chris, a scientist, worked hard at the lab bench.  Chris had been given a very stimulating suggestion in a letter from an unknown person.  The key to success was in the radium reaction that would activate the needed medicine.  From that point, it was simply a matter of reducing different compounds to find the right one.  Ultimately, it would be found, and then Chris would have a monopoly on the medicine that could make people immortal.  Only Chris would know the correct amount in each tablet.  The disappearance of death and disease would make Chris the most powerful person alive.

Tiers II through V


Sayz Me - simple text to speech application.
Sayz Me is a very simple text to speech reader. Copy text from web pages, emails or documents and this free utility will read the words aloud to you. Sayz Me uses the Microsoft speech engine and synthetic voices. Listen to text and give your eyes a rest. Great accessibility software as you can adjust the font size and color to assist reading. Very simple and easy to use. Best of all its free. You can download Sayz Me from Source Forge.
Features include:
- Speaks the clipboard contents
- Speaks text from files
- Speaks user entered text
- Select speakers voice
- Adjustable pitch, speed and volume
- Highlighting of currently spoken words
- Select font, font size and color
- Double click to jump to a particular word.
If you have tried and enjoy using Sayz Me please drop me a note in the Source Forge Forum - any suggestions or feedback is greatly appreciated.

Sayz Me has been tested on Windows 98, 2000 and XP.
Please ensure that the Microsoft Speech API 4.0 and the Microsoft synthetic voices are installed. Be sure to install "spchapi.exe" first, followed by "msttsl.exe" - the installation order is important! (These files should have been installed automatically in the default Win2k setup.)

More information about the myriad of Speech setups can be found at the Microsoft Speech website

Sayz Me will definitely not work on Linux, Unix, Mac, etc (yet!


Technology and Reading
Tiers II through V

Computers can be used to promote successful and more efficient reading experiences for students by offering alternative strategies.  Several software programs can make the computer a ‘virtual reading machine’.  Using text-to-speech technology enriches learning by having the computer highlight text and read it aloud as the student follows along.  Talking word processors (TWP) are writing software programs that provide speech feedback as the student writes.  Some examples of TWP are Write-Outloud (DJ.Inc), IntelliTalk II (IntelliTools), eReader (CAST), Type & Talk (textHELP!Systems), Kurzwell 1000, Kurzwell 3000 (Kurzwell Educational Systems), Wynn (Freedom Scientific), Sayz Me.
Once text is in digital format it can be accessed and manipulated in a variety of ways.

  • Some teachers already create many of their instructional materials on the computer, outlines, directions, worksheets.  If  the material is created on a computer, it can be imported into a talking word processor.
  • Tests, quizzes and other assessments can be created, opened or copied into a talking word processor.  This provides the means of independent student access.

E-Readers are the applications used to view available e-books that are often enhanced with music, external links, simulations and sound effects.  Many offer additional features such as the ability to highlight text, bookmark a page, search a book for a word or a name or look up an unfamiliar word in a dictionary.

There are several popular free e-Readers that can be downloaded to your computer to read any text file or e-book.  Some include graphics, offer a 2-page view and provide ways to draw and take notes.

  • Microsoft Reader (2.0) is a free e-book reader that will read any available e-book on your Windows computer and Pocket PC.
  • Adobe Acrobat eBook Reader.  This free eReader allows you to read with 1 or 2 page format and brings in clear graphics.

e-Book Sources

  • ...and e-Books for all
  • E-Book Connections
  • Knowledge Rush Book Directory
  • A Virtual Paradise for Readers


The Academy of Reading
(Computerized software)
Tiers II through V

The Academy of Reading is a comprehensive software program that will help both children and adults realize their full reading potential. The program contains a wide variety of assessment tools and several training programs that will help develop the skills that are necessary for successful reading.   The Academy also offers sophisticated management functions to help instructors set up and access third party software (such as games and library reference materials), perform regular maintenance tasks for safeguarding and manipulating important student data, view and analyze students' work, and more.

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