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Lesson Three

 

 

Essential Element: Fluency

 

Common Core State Standards

 

• RL.6.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
• RI.6.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range
• RL.7.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
• RI.7.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range
• RL.8.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
• RI.8.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently proficiently.

Rationale:

Educational research shows that accuracy, rate, and prosody work together to comprise reading fluency. Rasinski (2003) states “fluency does not just appear ‘naturally’ as part of reading acquisition for all students.” Fluency is not just about rate, faster is not always better. For a student to gain meaning, fluent reading is necessary. When considering a student’s reading fluency the meta-language fluency is also necessary. A student must understand the concepts of expression, word stress, and phrasing to gain the most from any passage read. Teachers should work to create contexts for practice, i.e., reader’s theater, with authentic purpose for fluency.

 

 

Material:

  • Script to be performed (speeches, plays, poems)

 

 

Direct Explanation:

Rasinski (2003) states that reader’s theater is “a minimalist form of play performing”. In reader’s theater, students read from scripts they hold in their hands or that are placed on music stands. There are no costumes or props in reader’s theater. Without these props or costumes the only attribute students have to make their performance meaningful is their voices. In order to use their voices well, performers must practice the text beforehand.

 

Students should be given the script. Students are then asked to get with their group to begin practicing the script. Along with practice in reading the script, students also need to understand the meaning of the script and the issues related to staging the performance.

 

 

Model:

  • Teacher will read the script expressively.

  • Teacher will read the script with appropriate volume, emphasizing correct words and changes in rate.

 

 

Guided/Independent Practice:

  •  
    1. Teacher and peers will listen to students read while monitoring for changes in volume and rate, as well as word/phrase emphasis.

    2. Students will form cooperative groups to brainstorm author’s purpose for writing the script as well as identify emotions, thoughts, feelings, and concepts that need to be conveyed to the listening audience.

    3. Students will re-read incorporating the suggestions made by teacher and peers after first reading and the brainstorming activity.

    4. Students will continue to practice the script as they refine and increase fluency in the presentation.

    5. As a final step, students will perform the reader’s theater.

 

Assessment: Students will demonstrate appropriate fluency with accuracy and expression, as rated by a teacher-created rubric.

 

 

Tier II Additions/Accommodations:

  • Students will develop the script from a book the class previously read.

  • Students will use planning sheet to assist in developing the script.

 

Assessment: Allow students to read student-developed script

 

 

Tier III Modifications:

  • Allow students to highlight applicable parts of script

  • Paired reading with a peer

 

Assessment:

  • Student will demonstrate fluency during the performance.

  • Student will demonstrate fluency with a peer.

 

 

Tier IV Modifications:

  • In a script, student will read targeted, selected words in a sentence

  • Present selected words to increase personal vocabulary relevant to grade level standards

  • Increase practice time, each session may need to be shortened

  • Script should be based on high interest/low reading text

  • Pre-teach the targeted words

  • Model expressions, (i.e., word stress, facial expressions, gestures, idioms, sarcasm, metaphors similes) represented in text

  • Paired reading with a peer

 

 

Tier IV Assessment:

  • Student will demonstrate fluency with a peer.

  • Student will demonstrate fluency during the performance.

 

 

Tier V Modifications:

  • Present selected pictures, icons, objects to increase student’s vocabulary relevant to grade level standards

  • May need extra practice time, although each session may need to be shortened

  • Pre-teach targeted words

  • Paired reading with a peer

Assessment:

  • Student will demonstrate fluency with a peer.

  • Student will demonstrate fluency during the performance.

 

 

 

References:

 

Rasinski, Timothy (2003) The Fluent Reader, Scholastic

 

Copyright © 2006 Arkansas Department of Education. All rights reserved. School districts may reproduce these materials for in-school student use only. No resale. Materials may not be reproduced, distributed or sold for Commercial use or profit. ADE employees are not authorized to waive these restrictions.

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