Arkansas State Personnel Development Grant

1401 W. Capital Ave.
Suite #450
Little Rock, AR 72201
Phone: (501) 319-7333
Fax: (501) 379-8387

Lesson Two

 

 

Fluency

 

Common Core State Standards

• RL.6.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
• RI.6.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range
• RL.7.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
• RI.7.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range
• RL.8.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
• RI.8.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently proficiently.

 

 

Rationale:

The best way to assess reading skills is to listen to a student read orally. When the teacher listens to a student read, he/she is able to identify the student’s strengths and weaknesses. The National Reading Panel (2000) cites two critical elements in overall reading success—word recognition and fluency. Gillet and Temple, 2000, list three levels of reading by recognition accuracy—Independent level (96-100% accuracy), Instructional level (90-95% accuracy), and Frustration level (below 90% accuracy). Rasinski (2003) states that “the most fluent reader is able to decode words quickly as well as correctly”. The One-Minute Reading Probe is a quick and efficient method of determining a student’s fluency and word recognition.

 

 

Materials:

  • Four grade level passages in folders

  • Stopwatch, clock with second hand, or timer

  • Fluency Chart (attached)

  • Overhead projector and markers

  • Grade level passage on overhead transparency

  • Pencils, markers, or colored pencils

 

 

Direct Explanation:

Today you are going to read a passage with your partner. Each of you will be given the opportunity to be the reader and the tutor. Let’s review the rolls: The reader is the person who will read the passage. The tutor will listen to the reader, mark with a slash through a word that is read incorrectly and draw a line after the last word read when the time is up. I will be the time keeper today and will let you know when one minute is up.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

Model:

The passage we will read today is from our textbooks. Erica and I will model how this process is done. I will be the reader and she will be the tutor. Remember, her job is to listen and mark what word or words I read incorrectly. My job is to read the passage aloud.” Model process in front of class, making at least one intentional mistake. Have tutor mark the overhead transparency so students can see the process.

 

 

Guided Practice:

You will need to find a partner to work with. I will give you 30 seconds to find someone and to move to a section of the room where you can work. Take your pencil with you.” Give 30 seconds for students to break into groups of two and settle on a spot. “The reader needs to read Passage # 1 aloud.” Begin 60 second timer. “Stop. Mark where your partner stopped and sign your name at the bottom and have your partner sign at the top. Now we will switch partners. This time you will use Passage #2. Begin reading aloud.” Begin 60 second timer. “Stop. Mark where your partner stopped and sign your name at the bottom and have your partner sign at the top.”

 

 

Application:

Your assignment today is to read Passage #3 to your partner, then switch and have your partner read Passage #4 to you. You each have a timer or can see the clock to time your partner. You can begin.” Monitor progress by walking around the room. “Time is up. Please make sure your name is on the passage page. Return all materials to the folder and return to your desk.” Teacher should collect materials.

 

 

Assessment:

The One-Minute Reading Probe can be completed in the same manner as the Application process, or the teacher can have the student read the passage to him/her while other students are engaged in independent activities. The results of the Probe can be graphed as a way for students to track their own progress.

 

 

Tier II Additions/Accommodations:

  • Read passage to teacher

  • Record passage on tape

 

Assessment: Student will record passage on tape. Teacher can time and score fluency passage (rather than peer). Student and teacher graph progress together.

 

 

Tier III Modifications:

  • Read passage on his/her own reading level

  • Read passage to teacher or para-professional

  • Modify class text to his/her own reading level

 

Assessment: Student reads passage to teacher/para-professional. Teacher graphs progress.

 

 

Tier IV Modifications:

  • Modify class text (use computer readability to reduce complexity of reading material

  • Create text in varying formats, e.g., Braille, pictorial, tactile, electronic icons, signing

  • Read along with electronic texts (such as, CD, books on tape, talking books, computer reading programs and/or other digital materials that may be developed in the future)

 

Assessments:

  • Record the correct responses

  • Note the improvement in the number of correct responses at individual’s reading level, the speed of responses and/or the number of responses should increase over time

 

 

Tier V Modifications:

  • Change the instructional delivery - natural material context cues, add sensory cues

  • Meaningful and functional text (words, logos, environmental print, pictures/objects, visually supported materials, such as Minspeak, Unity, high interest/low reading level text, tactile input, etc.)

  • Extend practice opportunities, although each lesson itself may be shorter than for other levels

  • Allow for alternate methods of output, such as signing, alternate communication forms, including electronic output

  • Read the vocabulary fluently in multiple environments

  • Choice making in a consistent and timely manner to aid comprehension, based on the student’s reading level

  • Pre-teach the vocabulary

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tier V Assessments:

  • Record the correct responses

  • Note the improvement in the number of correct responses at individual’s reading level, the speed of responses and/or the number of responses should increase over time.

  • When the teacher/adult use touch cues, student will read the cues with increased speed and accuracy

 

 Fluency Assessment + Fluency Chart

 

References:

 

Reading First Activities (Grade 3), J.O. Prior, Teacher Created Materials, Inc., 2004

 

Rasinski, Timothy (2003) The Fluent Reader, Scholastic

 

Copyright © 2006 Arkansas Department of Education. All rights reserved. School districts may reproduce these materials for in-school student use only. No resale. Materials may not be reproduced, distributed or sold for Commercial use or profit. ADE employees are not authorized to waive these restrictions.

No Events To Display...
Privacy Statement | Site Map | Staff Login | Web site design and hosting by Web International
© Copyright 2010 Arkansas State Personnel Development Grant • All Rights Reserved
cialis uk 10mg order cialis uk free cialis uk buy kamagra uk