Arkansas State Personnel Development Grant

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Lesson One

 

 

Fluency

 

Common Core State Standards

• RL.6.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
• RI.6.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range
• RL.7.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
• RI.7.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range
• RL.8.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
• RI.8.10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently proficiently.

Rationale:

A skilled reader is one who can quickly and accurately identify and read words in a text. Automaticity plays a role in comprehension by allowing the reader to focus his or her attention on the understanding of a passage rather than simply decoding words and constructing meaning of a text simultaneously. When a reader can read a passage automatically, his or her attention can then be directed toward the meaning or comprehension. The most effective way to achieve automaticity is through extensive practice. This practice can be done through repeated exposures to connected and familiar text (Morrow, Gambrell and Pressley). Rasinski notes in The Fluent Reader that learning words in isolation too much can have a negative impact on the student. Since nearly two thirds of all the words a student encounters in elementary school are small, high-frequency words, it is extremely important that students in grades 5-8 have this solid foundation upon which they can continue to build.

 

 

Materials:

  • Phrase list of the Fry Instant Word List, sixth 100 words (attached)

  • Chalkboard, white board, or overhead projector and transparency or pocket chart and sentence strips

 

 

Direct Explanation:

At the beginning of today’s lesson we are going to spend a couple of minutes reading a set of 10 phrases or short sentences repeatedly. We will practice these as a whole group twice and then with your partner twice. It is our goal to read these phrases and sentences quickly and accurately with understanding.”

 

Model:

Let’s read these together in a smooth and fluent manner.” (Point to whole phrases or sentences rather than word by word.)

 

Guided/Independent Practice:

Now let’s read through these one more time together.” Read together as a group. “This time I want you to turn to your reading partner and read the phrases and sentences. When you have completed this, listen to your partner read.”

 

Assessment: Record number of words/phrases/sentences read automatically within a designated time period.

 

 

Tier II Additions/Accommodations:

  • Divide phrases/sentences into two groups of five

 

Assessment: Record number of words/phrases/sentences read automatically when broken into smaller groups.

 

 

Tier III Modifications:

  • Practice words/phrases/sentences from their reading instructional level

  • Reduce number of phrases/sentences to five

 

Assessment: Record number of words/phrases/sentences (on student’s instructional level) read correctly.

 

 

Tier IV Modifications:

  • Change the instructional delivery – natural material context cues, add sensory cues

  • Meaningful and functional text (words, visually supported materials, such as Minspeak, high interest/low reading level text, tactile input, etc.)

  • Extend practice opportunities, although each lesson itself may be shorter than for other levels

  • Allow for alternate methods of output, such as signing, alternate communication forms, including electronic output

  • Pre-teach vocabulary

 

Assessment:

  • Record the correct responses

  • Note the improvement in the number of correct responses at individual’s reading level, the speed of responses and/or the number of responses should increase over time.

 

 

 

Tier V Modifications:

  • Change the instructional delivery-natural material context cues, add sensory cues

  • Meaningful and functional text (words, visually supported materials, such as Minspeak, high interest/low reading level text, tactile input, etc.)

  • Extend practice opportunities, although each lesson itself may be shorter than for other levels

  • Allow for alternate methods of output, such as signing, alternate communication forms, including electronic output

  • Read the vocabulary fluently in multiple environments

  • Choice making in a consistent and timely manner to aid comprehension, based on the student’s reading level

  • Pre-teach the vocabulary

 

Assessment:

  • Record the correct responses

  • Note the improvement in the number of correct responses at individual’s reading level, the speed of responses and/or the number of responses should increase over time.

  • When the teacher/adult use touch cues, student will read the cues with increased speed and accuracy

 

 

 

References:

 

Morrow, Gambrell, and Pressley (2003) Best Practices in Literacy Instruction, The Guilford Press

 

Rasinski (2003) The Fluent Reader, Scholastic

 

Fry, Kress, Fountoukidis (2000) The Reading Teacher’s Book of Lists, Fourth Edition, Jossey and Bass

 

Copyright © 2006 Arkansas Department of Education. All rights reserved. School districts may reproduce these materials for in-school student use only. No resale. Materials may not be reproduced, distributed or sold for Commercial use or profit. ADE employees are not authorized to waive these restrictions.

 

Practice phrases and sentences

  1. Dance members love exercise.

  2. summer flowers

  3. winter clothes  

  4. beautiful blue glass  

  5. Farmers picked

  6. arms race

  7. square root

  8. soft eggs 

  9. written paragraph 

  10. Teachers believe they are ready for anything.

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