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Lesson Three


 

Essential Element: Comprehension

 

Framework(s):

  • R.9.5.6-7.6, R.9.8.7 Connect own background knowledge and personal

experience to make inferences and respond to new

information presented in text

  • R.9.5.7 Make inferences supported by a character’s thoughts, words, and

actions, or the narrator’s description

  • R.9.6.7 Make inferences and draw conclusions about characters’ traits

and actions based on plot, settings, motives, and responses to other

characters

  • R.9.7.7 Infer a character’s impact on plot development

  • R.9.8.8 Infer a character’s role in development of plot and theme

  • R.9.7.8 Infer the mood of text

  • R.9.8.9 Infer mood and theme of text

 

  • R.9.5.8-6.8 Analyze literary elements of character, plot, and setting

  • R.9.7.9 Analyze literary elements of fiction with emphasis on plot

development, including conflict, rising action, climax, falling

action, and resolution

  • R.9.8.11 Analyze literary elements of plot, subplot, and climax, and

explain the way in which conflicts are resolved or unresolved

  • R.9.5.10-6.10 Distinguish among facts and inferences supported by

evidence and opinions in text

 

 

Rationale:

It is important to remember we can teach students “how” to comprehend text. Merely explaining what is happening with the story does not show children “how” to comprehend the text. You must be explicit and overt in teaching those skills. One definition of making inferences is “the ability to connect what is in the text with what is in the mind to make an educated guess.” (Beers, When Kids Can’t Read, p. 62)

 

 

Materials:

  • Text for each student

 

 

Direct explanation:

When you read, do you see pictures in your mind? I do, and it can help you figure out what is happening in the story you are reading. Today we are going to discuss the importance of visualizing what you are reading. While I am reading this story I will stop and visualize what will happen next. This is called what?” (Wait for student response.) “Predicting, that’s right. I will be stopping during reading and ‘think-aloud’. In particular, I want you to listen to how I try to predict what will happen next. Try to see the picture of what is happening and clarify anything that is confusing in the story.”

 

The 3 things we are focusing on are:

  1. Visualizing the story

  2. Predicting

  3. Clarifying

 

Model one to two paragraphs, and then do a think-aloud. Have the students identify the skills used in the process.

 

 

Guided practice:

Have the students read a story in groups of two. Give students multiple chances to practice strategic reading with peers. Monitor and coach your students as needed.

 

 

Assessment: Have the students read a short passage and predict what will happen next by writing a short open response.

 

 

Tier II Additions/Accommodations:

  • Use a prediction chart (TPRI, p. 100-101).

 

Characters Setting Goal/problems Action Other











 

Have the student fill out this chart to help clarify the details and make an educated prediction.

 

Assessment:

Use the chart to help complete the open response question used in Tier I.

 

 

Tier III Modifications:

  • Use concrete predictions with prompts as needed

 

Assessment: Modify the assessment to ask one specific concrete question.

Example: During the picnic, it became cloudy and you could hear thunder in the distance. What do you think happened at the picnic?

 

 

Tier IV Modifications:

  • Offer student the choice of two or three possible predictions

  • Re-read the selections and have the student choose the appropriate prediction

 

Assessment: Modify the assessment to ask one specific concrete question.

Example: During the picnic, it became cloudy and you could hear thunder in the distance. What do you think happened at the picnic?

 

 

Tier V Modifications:

  • Offer the student pictures/icons of two possible predictions

  • Read the story to the student and allow student to choose the appropriate prediction

 

Assessment: Modify the assessment to ask one specific concrete question.

Example: During the picnic, it became cloudy and you could hear thunder in the distance. What do you think happened at the picnic?

 

 

 

Resources:

 

Beers, K. (2003) When Kids Can’t Read, Heinemann Publishing, pp. 40-44.

 

Texas Primary Reading Inventory, pp. 100-101 #8.7

 

Copyright © 2006 Arkansas Department of Education. All rights reserved. School districts may reproduce these materials for in-school student use only. No resale. Materials may not be reproduced, distributed or sold for Commercial use or profit. ADE employees are not authorized to waive these restrictions.

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