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Lesson Five


 

Essential Element: Comprehension

 

Framework(s):

  • R.9.5.18 Retell stories with detail

 

  • R.9.5.19 Summarize information

R.9.6.18

R.9.7.17

 

  • R.9.8.20 Synthesize information from multiple texts and provide

evidence to support

 

  • R.9.5.20 Identify events and evaluate characters, accuracy, conflicts,

R.9.6.19 and points of view

R.9.7.18

R.9.8.21

 

  • R.9.5.21 Evaluate personal, social, and political issues as presented in

R.9.6.20 text

R.9.7.19

R.9.8.22

 

 

Rationale:

Summarizing, synthesizing, and retelling are comprehension skills that students will use in their reading, whether they are reading literature selections or technical materials. Summarizing, “the ability to delete irrelevant details, combine similar ideas, condense main ideas, and connect major themes into concise statements that capture the purpose of a reading” (Morrow, et al), is a comprehension skill that is often necessary on high-stakes testing. Debbie Miller in Reading with Meaning defines retelling as telling “what is important in a way that makes sense without telling too much.” Synthesizing is when the student is required to gather information from other sources and relate it to what has been read. These strategies require that the student understand the text that has been read and be able to tell others about the text.

 

 

Materials:

  • Individual copies of classroom text

  • Paper/pencil/markers/colored pencils

  • Overhead projector/transparencies/markers

 

 

 

Direct Explanation:

Today we will be working on three comprehension skills: retelling, summarizing and synthesizing. The first thing we will do is to brainstorm definitions of each of these skills. I have listed on the board the three skills for your group to develop definitions. We will take 5 minutes to work in your group.” (Divide class into 3 groups.) “Let’s come back together as a group and discuss these terms. What does retelling mean?” Response could be, “Telling what the story is about in your own words.” “What does summarizing mean?” Response could be, “Telling the basic facts of a selection.” “What does synthesizing mean?” Response could be “Applying new knowledge to what is known and generating new ideas.” (Routman)

 

 

Model:

Now let’s read this passage together.” (See handout #1) “If you look at the next section on the handout, you will see where I have retold the section, using details. In the next section, I have summarized the section—I told what was important without telling too much. In the last part, I synthesized the passage by taking what I read and applying it to something new.”

 

 

Guided Practice:

Let’s look at the next passage together. Read the passage silently while I read it aloud.” (Read the passage aloud.) “Now I would like for Group 1 to retell the story, Group 2 to summarize the story, and Group 3 to synthesize it.” (Give students time to read the section and formulate their answers. When students are finished, have a spokesperson from each group read their answers.)

 

 

Application:

Your assignment is to read the next section in the text. When you finish the reading, you are to write a paragraph summarizing the information. Be prepared to defend your summarization by retelling what you read. You will have the remainder of this class period to work on this. If you don’t finish this in class, then you are to finish this for homework. We will review this at the beginning of class tomorrow.”

 

 

Assessment: Provide students with reading passages to retell, summarize,

and synthesize.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tier II Additions/Accommodations:

  • Work in groups of two or three

  • Peer, paraprofessional, teacher or parent to read passages

  • Shorten reading passages

 

Assessment: Provide students with shortened reading passages to retell, summarize, and synthesize.

 

 

Tier III Modifications:

  • Peer, paraprofessional, teacher, or parent to read passages

  • Listen to passages on tape or text-to-speech computer program

  • Choose passages on the student’s instructional reading level

  • Divide assignment into three separate assignments

  • Match reading passage with already compiled retelling/summarizing/ synthesizing passages

 

Assessment: Divide assessment into 3 separate sections to be given at separate times.

 

 

Tier IV Modifications:

  • Peer, paraprofessional, teacher, or parent to read passages

  • Listen to passages on tape or text-to-speech computer program

  • Choose passages on the student’s instructional reading level

  • Divide assignment into four separate assignments

  • Match reading passage with already compiled retelling/summarizing/ synthesizing passages

 

Assessment: Divide assessment into 4 separate sections to be given at separate times.

 

 

Tier V Modifications:

  • Paraprofessional, parent volunteer, or teacher will read passage accompanied by pictures/icons

  • Student choose two facts from the passage

 

Assessment: Student will be asked to “tell” two facts from passage. If student is non-speaking, augmentative/alternative communication may be used to “tell” facts.

 

Summarizing Lesson + Handout

 

References:

 

Morrow, L., Gambrell, L., and Pressley, M. (2003) Best Practices in Literacy Instruction, Second Edition, Guilford Press.

 

Miller, Debbie (2002) Reading with Meaning, Stenhouse Publishers.

 

Routman, Regie (2003) Reading Essentials: The Specifics You Need to Teach Reading Well, Heinemann.

 

Peterson, Roger Tory (1989) “Mallards” from Celebrations, Houghton Mifflin Reading Series.

 

Copyright © 2006 Arkansas Department of Education. All rights reserved. School districts may reproduce these materials for in-school student use only. No resale. Materials may not be reproduced, distributed or sold for Commercial use or profit. ADE employees are not authorized to waive these restrictions.

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